By Marielle De Vries
This ebook summarises felony and political occasions with regards to lively sonar and marine mammals. whereas strandings and mortality of marine mammals, essentially beaked whales, were saw in concurrence with mid-frequency sonar operation, extra controversy has considering the improvement of low-frequency lively (LFA) sonar. a few peacetime use of army sonar has been regulated less than the Marine Mammal safety Act (MMPA) and different statutes as a result of issues that lively army sonars are operated at frequencies utilized by a few cetaceans (i.e., whales, porpoises, and dolphins), and their high-intensity sound pulses might trip lengthy distances within the ocean. even if mid-frequency sonar has been implicated in numerous beaked whale strandings, there's medical uncertainty surrounding the totality of the results energetic sonar transmissions could have on marine mammals. This e-book additionally addresses the worry relating to environmental results of ocean noise on 3 actions - army sonar routines, oil and gasoline exploration, and advertisement delivery. this is often an edited, excerpted and augmented version of a CRS ebook.
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This ebook summarises felony and political occasions on the topic of lively sonar and marine mammals. whereas strandings and mortality of marine mammals, essentially beaked whales, were saw in concurrence with mid-frequency sonar operation, extra controversy has involved in the advance of low-frequency energetic (LFA) sonar.
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Additional info for Protecting Marine Mammals (Wildlife Protection, Estruction and Extinction Series)
Sonar will not resume until the animal has been seen to leave the area, has not been detected for 30 minutes, or the vessel has transited more than 2,000 yards beyond the location of the last detection. (iv) Special conditions applicable for dolphins and porpoises only: If, after conducting an initial maneuver to avoid close quarters with dolphins or porpoises, the Officer of the Deck concludes that dolphins or porpoises are deliberately closing to ride the vessel's bow wave, no further mitigation actions are necessary while the dolphins or porpoises continue to exhibit bow wave riding behavior.
Supp. D. Cal. 2008). See Table 3 for the mitigation measures. 31 Letter from James L. Connaughton, Chairman, CEQ, to Donald C. Winter, Secretary of the Navy (January 15, 2008), p. pdf]. 32 NRDC v. Winter, 513 F. 3d 920 (9th Cir. 2008). 33 NRDC v. Winter, 527 F. Supp. D. Cal. 2008). 34 NRDC v. 3d 1103 (9th Cir. 2008). 35 NRDC v. Winter, 518 F. 3d 658 (9th Cir. 2008). 36 NRDC v. 3d 658, 680 (9th Cir. 2008). 37 NRDC v. 3d 658, 682 (9th Cir. 2008). 38 NRDC v. S. App. LEXIS 4458, *4 (9th Cir. February 29, 2008).
In particular, the court determined that: (1) the 2,200-yard shutdown zone 46 Marielle de Vries imposed by the District Court was unlikely to affect the Navy‘s operations, because the Navy often shuts down its MFA sonar systems during the course of training exercises; and (2) the powerdown requirement during significant surface ducting conditions was not unreasonable because such conditions are rare, and the Navy has previously certified strike groups that had not trained under such conditions.