Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, Optics by Robert A. Meyers

By Robert A. Meyers

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Comparison of zero-order diffraction efficiencies found by EMT and RCWA is available in the literature. Figure 10(a) shows the effective index of an etched GaAs grating, calculated using the effective medium theory, as a function of grating fill factor. 27 (bulk GaAs) is achievable for both polarizations by proper choice of the grating fill factor. 1) grating. The maximum value of form bire- III. APPLICATIONS A. Optical Interconnects Due to large bandwidths and inherent parallel-processing capability, optical interconnections are of interest in communication signal routing and optical computing.

13. D. Additional devices are based on combination of subwavelength gratings with thin-film and waveguide layers. 1. Antireflection (AR) Surfaces FIGURE 12 (a) A refractive spherical lens and analogous diffractive lenses. (b) Diffractive-lens focusing via ray tracing. r h = ( f + h λ 0 )2 − f 2 1/2 , h = integer. (35) In the paraxial region ( f h max λ0 ), it may be approximated as rh = [2hλ0 f ]1/2 . The wavelength-dependent focal length and diffraction efficiency of diffractive lenses with a continuous profile are given, through transmittance diffraction analysis, by f m (λ) = λ0 f , λm m = integer (36) ηm (λ) = sin2 [π{α(λ) − m}] , [π{α(λ) − m}]2 (37) and where α(λ) is a detuning parameter defined by α(λ) = λ0 n(λ) − 1 .

81). Here, we record two or more images with different values of the defocus and hence with different forms of the transfer function and seek the weighted linear combinations of these images, or rather of their spatial frequency spectra, that yield the best estimates (in the least-squares sense) of ϕ˜ and s˜ . By using a focal series of such images, we can both cancel, or at least substantially reduce, the effect of the transfer functions sin γ and cos γ and fill in the information missing from each individual picture around the zeros of these functions.

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