Encyclopedia of Europe since 1945 by Bernard A. Cook

By Bernard A. Cook

The cave in of Communism in jap Europe in 1989 appeared a logical end to a ancient epoch introduced by means of global conflict II (1914–18), yet extra particularly to the Europe that was once produced by way of the adjustments of global conflict II (1939–45). The latter clash accomplished the exhaustion of France and nice Britain that was once so obtrusive in global struggle I. Germany in 1945 used to be prostrate and lower than army career. The Soviet Union, although it had skilled awful devastation through the battle, moved into the vacuum within the east created through the defeat of Nazi Germany. The final 1/2 the 20 th century observed the increase of the chilly conflict because the usa assumed a management position within the twin attempt to comprise the Soviet Union and to aid within the reconstruction of Western Europe.

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In the 1970s she created the “Alterations,” a series of figurative and abstract sculptures made of hardened sackcloth. ” Abakanowicz, however, claims that her art is not politically inspired. From the 1980s she erected spatial compositions in the open air in Italy, Israel, Korea, the United States, and Germany. She began utilizing new materials such as bronze, stone, and wood. In 1990 Abakanowicz won a competition for designing changes to the extension of the Paris axis, beyond the business district of La Défense.

1985 Spain and Portugal admitted to the European Community March 10 Gorbachev succeeds Chernenko as head of Soviet Communist Party. November Anglo-Irish Accord signed 1986 February 28 Olaf Palme, Swedish prime minister, assassinated April 26 Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster in Ukraine June Kurt Waldheim elected president of Austria 1987 Boris Yeltsin ousted from Central Committee and the Communist Party of the USSR 1988 Nagorno-Karabakh crisis 1989 April Solidarity legalized in Poland May 8 Slobodan Milosevic becomes president of Serbia June 4 Solidarity sweeps Polish election August 24 Mazowiecki, a non-Communist, appointed prime minister in Poland October 18 Erich Honecker removed as East German leader November 9 Berlin Wall falls November Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia December Ouster and execution of Romania’s Ceausescu and wife 1990 March 18 Christian Democrats victorious in East German election March 29 New Congress of People’s Deputies elected in the USSR May Gorbachev elected president of the USSR by the Congress of People’s Deputies August 2 Iraq invades Kuwait and precipitates crisis leading to Persian Gulf War October 3 Reunification of East and West Germany November 28 Thatcher resigns and is replaced by John Major as British prime minister December 20 Shevardnadze resigns as Soviet foreign minister 1991 January 13 Attack by Soviet troops on Lithuanian supporters of independence June 12 Yeltsin elected Russian president June 25 Slovenia and Croatia declare independence from Yugoslavia July 1 Warsaw Pact dissolved August 18–25 Attempted coup by hard-line Communists in USSR December 7–8 Minsk agreement between Yeltsin, Leonid Kravchuk of Ukraine, and Stanislav Shushevich of Belarus to replace the USSR with a Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) December 21 Eleven former Soviet republics join the Commonwealth of Independent States December 25 Gorbachev resigns as president of USSR December 30 Commonwealth of Independent States leaders abolish all institutions of the Soviet Union December Treaty of Maastricht signed 1992 April 6 Bosnian independence recognized by the European Union and the United States; Bosnian war begins 1993 January 1 Separation of Czech Republic and Slovakia October 3–4 Attack by Yeltsin on opposition in parliament December 12.

She began utilizing new materials such as bronze, stone, and wood. In 1990 Abakanowicz won a competition for designing changes to the extension of the Paris axis, beyond the business district of La Défense. Abakanowicz’s proposal addressed ecological and social problems of big cities. She created a fantastic project of “arboreal architecture” where buildings had the shapes of trees, completely covered in plants, and were energy self-sufficient. Their crowns housed recreational areas and their “roots” contained garages, underground stations, and shopping centers.

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