Electrochemical technologies for energy storage and by Ru-Shi Liu; et al

By Ru-Shi Liu; et al

A one-stop source for either researchers and improvement engineers, this complete instruction manual serves as a regular reference, exchanging lots of person papers. This moment version positive factors twenty percentage extra content material with new chapters on battery characterization, approach expertise, failure mechanisms and procedure improvement, plus up-to-date info on vintage batteries in addition to totally new effects on complicated ways. The authors, from such prime associations because the US nationwide Labs and from businesses equivalent to Panasonic and Sanyo, current a balanced view on battery examine and large-scale purposes. They persist with a fairly materials-oriented course during the whole box of battery study, therefore permitting readers to quick locate the data at the specific fabrics approach proper to their examine.

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Example text

It is characterized by the fact that oxidation and reduction always occur at the same time. For the Daniell element, the copper ions are the oxidizing agent and the zinc ions the reducing agent. Both together form the corresponding redox pair: Red1 + Ox2 → Ox1 + Red2 CuSO4 + Zn → ZnSO4 + Cu The electrode at which the oxidation dominates during discharge is named the anode (negative pole), and the other, where the reduction dominates, is the cathode (positive pole). This nomenclature is valid only for the discharging reaction; for the charging reaction the names are reversed.

7) The thermodynamic treatment requires that during one formula conversion the cell reaction is reversible. This means that all partial processes in a cell must remain in equilibrium. The current is kept infinitely small, so that the cell voltage ε and the equilibrium cell voltage ε00 are equal. Furthermore, inside the cell no concentration gradient should exist in the electrolyte; that is, the zinc and copper ion concentrations must be constant in the whole Daniell element. 3 Concentration Dependence of the Equilibrium Cell Voltage It is established from the chemical thermodynamics that the sum of the chemical potentials µi of the substances νi involved in the gross reaction is equal to the reaction free energy.

3 Discharging During the discharge process, electrons are released at the anode from the electrochemically active material, which is oxidized. At the same time, cathodic substances are reduced by receiving electrons. The transport of the electrons occurs through an external circuit (the consumer). 8 Ah mol−1 . 023 × 1023 mol−1 ). 3) Q = quantity of electricity, electric charge n = number of moles of electrons exchanged. For the Daniell-element the electron-donating reaction is the oxidation of zinc.

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