By Gérard Roland (eds.)
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Extra resources for Economies in Transition: The Long-Run View
A phone service is supplied because domestic or foreign entrepreneurs proﬁt from this business. Because of the close substitutability of the cable-connected telephone by mobile phones, the ﬁrst cannot remain a monopoly. On the contrary, we witness a ﬁerce rivalry between phone companies. Some 30 years ago in the Soviet Union or in Eastern Europe, the would-be-customer begged the bureaucracy for a phone line. Nowadays, phone companies are bidding for the favour of the customer. I, for one, remember well my own troubles due to the lack of a home phone line, and I am grateful to post-socialist transition and to capitalism for the fact that now I and all my family members have a home phone.
Thus, the subject of the second and third parts of my study is the interaction between the post-1989 change of the system and the acceleration of technical progress. 1 Revolutionary new products The complex process of technical progress is composed of several subprocesses. 1 Revolutionary innovations Innovation Year Country Company 1961 1963 1966 1970 1971 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1980 1981 1981 1983 1983 1984 1994 2000 2003 2004 2005 USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA Estonia USA USA Fairchild AT&T Xerox Corning Bowmar Wang Intel IBM Hayes Microsoft Hard disk drive Xerox Epson Hewlett-Packard Motorola Apple WebCrawler IBM Skype Facebook YouTube 2007 USA Apple Tea bag Hair dryer, hand-held, electric Wall plug Spin dryer Automatic pop-up toaster Steam electric iron Electric refrigerator Air-conditioning, home Neon light Instant coffee Electric clothes dryer 1920 1920 USA USA Joseph Krieger Hamilton Beach 1920 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1938 1938 1938 UK USA USA USA USA USA USA Switzerland USA Nylon Espresso machine (high pressure) Microwave oven 1939 1946 USA Italy Rawlplug Co.
SMS, Linux) in the sphere of computers, digital applications, information and communication started in this civilian, non-proﬁt, associative way of the non-Schumpeterian innovation. Notwithstanding the relevance of non-Schumpeterian processes, most breakthrough innovations follow the Schumpeterian path. That is certainly true of the innovations targeted at the market of consumer goods and services for practical use in everyday life. And even the non-Schumpeterian starts are followed typically by many proﬁt-oriented applications, and innovators with a commercial orientation execute the larger share of wide diffusion.