By Robert J. Wootton
Among the fishes, a remarkably wide selection of organic diversifications to different habitats has advanced. in addition to dwelling within the traditional habitats of lakes, ponds, rivers, rock swimming pools and the open sea, fish have solved the issues of lifestyles in deserts, within the deep sea, within the chilly antarctic, and in hot waters of excessive alkalinity or of low oxygen. besides those diversifications, we discover the main outstanding specializations of morphology, body structure and behavior. for instance we will wonder on the high-speed swimming of the marlins, sailfish and warm-blooded tunas, air-breathing in catfish and lungfish, parental care within the mouth-brooding cichlids and viviparity in lots of sharks and toothcarps. additionally, fish are of substantial value to the survival of the human species within the kind of nutritious and scrumptious nutrients of various forms. Rational expoitation and administration of our international shares of fishes needs to depend on an in depth and particular perception in their biology. The Chapman and corridor Fish and Fisheries sequence goals to provide well timed volumes reviewing vital facets of fish biology. so much volumes can be of curiosity to investigate employees in biology, zoology, ecology and body structure yet an extra goal is for the books to be available to a large spectrum of non expert readers starting from undergraduates and postgraduates to these with an curiosity in business and advertisement points of fish and fisheries.
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Extra info for Ecology of Teleost Fishes
Victoria (Haplochromis cyaneus). Redrawn with permission from Keast and Webb (1966) and from Fryer and Iles (1972). Fig. 6 Feeding of Lethrinopsfurcifer, a sand-digging cichlid from L. Malawi. showing 'vacuum cleaning' of substrate. Redrawn with permission from Fryer and Iles (1972). EMPLOYERS OF SUBTERFUGE Fig. 7 Relationship between shape of marginal and pharyngeal teeth and diet for cichlids from L. Malawi. ) Redrawn and simplified with permission from Fryer and Iles (1972). l:b Morphological adaptations 39 Lakes cichlids (Fryer and nes.
Those cichlids that feed by crushing molluscs is striking. In Lake Opinicon. the pumpkinseed sunfish. Lepomis gibbosus. feeds on molluscs and isopods. Its stout. flattened pharyngeal teeth act as a grinding mechanism. The bluegill sunfish. which feeds on a wide range of small invertebrates. has the surface of its pharyngeal bones covered with fine. needle-like teeth (Keast. 1978). Gill rakers. Rakers are forward-directed projections from the inner margins ofthe gill arches. Their shape and abundance are related to diet.
Movement is the third important prey characteristic. The reaction distance of rainbow trout feeding on pieces of blanched liver is significantly greater when the liver is kept in motion (Ware. 1973). Mysids are important in the diet of the littoral fifteens pine stickleback. Spinachia spinachia. The stickleback prefers moving mysids to stationary ones unless the prey are moving slowly. The frequency of attempted or completed feeding responses by the stickleback increases with the speed of movement of the mysid up to a speed of about 48 Feeding 30 mm s - I.