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Additional resources for East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa, Volume 3, Part D: Bovids
Nature 415, 901–904. N. (1988) Megaherbivores: The Influence of Very Large Body Size on Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. , Scott, L. E. (1999) Synthetic reconstructions of southern African environments during the Last Glacial Maximum (21–28 kyr) and the Holocene Altithermal, (8–6 kyr). Quaternary International 57/58, 207–214. , Saltzman, E. & Stievenard, M. (1999) Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420 000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica. Nature 399, 429–436.
Growth form is more often based on architecture (shrubs are typically multistemmed, trees single-stemmed) than on height. Types of spines are given as prickles (≤1 cm; often hooked) and spines (>1 cm; generally straight). e. e. leaves last >1 year). Growth rates are generally subjectively stated, and are likely to be relative. 7 Slow – Slow – Slow – – Fast – Growth rate – Leaves apparently only used by elephants – Elephants eat root and bark, giraffe the leaves – – Eaten by a variety of wild animals – – As herbivore food Tree Tree Tree Tree Shrub Tree Loganiaceae Loganiaceae Meliaceae Rubiaceae Verbenaceae Papilionideae Strychnos madagascariensis Strychnos potatorum Trichilia emetica Vangueria infausta Vitex mombassae Xeroderris stuhlmannii † Securinega Canthium frangula.
Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa 65, 125–176. L. G. (2008) Late Quaternary lake-level fluctuations in the Mababe Depression: middle Kalahari palaeolakes and the role of Zambezi inflows. Quaternary Research 69, 388–403. R. M. (1998) Carbon dioxide starvation, the development of C4 ecosystems, and mammalian evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 353, 159–171. Chafota, J. & Owen-Smith, N. (2009) Episodic severe damage to canopy trees by elephants: interactions with fire, frost and rain.