Creative Model Construction in Scientists and Students: The by John Clement

By John Clement

How do scientists use analogies and different strategies to damage clear of outdated theories and generate new ones? This e-book files such tools in the course of the research of video tapes of scientifically proficient specialists pondering aloud whereas engaged on unexpected difficulties. a few facets of inventive medical pondering are tricky to provide an explanation for, similar to the ability of analogies, using actual instinct, and the enigmatic skill to profit from notion experiments. The e-book examines the speculation that those approaches are in response to imagistic psychological simulation as an underlying mechanism. this enables the research of perception ( Aha! ) episodes of inventive idea formation. complicated tactics tested comprise really good retaining differences, Gedanken experiments, and altered degrees of divergence in considering. pupil interviews are used to teach that scholars have typical skills for lots of of those easy reasoning and version building techniques and that this has very important implications for increasing tutorial theories of conceptual switch and inquiry.

"I regard this paintings because the so much entire account ever tried to teach how imagistic, analogic, and sensory-motor representations perform artistic thinking."

Professor Ryan Tweney

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Additional resources for Creative Model Construction in Scientists and Students: The Role of Imagery, Analogy, and Mental Simulation

Sample text

The present study suggests that there are other important methods for evaluating the soundness or validity of an analogy besides mapping of discrete symbols, including generating secondary bridging analogies (Chapter 4), finding conserving transformations, or conducting dual imagistic simulations for the base and the target (Chapter 17). These methods may all rely heavily on imagery. C. Comprehension of the source or analogous case: Most previous studies assume that the subject has an adequate understanding of the knowledge in a source conception that is pertinent to the target (although the subject may not yet see the relevance of the source to the target).

3 Initial Observations 27 involved calculating the volume of a torus without taking an integral. g. 4 to 52 min on the Spring Problem). Since subjects were at a considerably higher level professionally than undergraduates and were not able to offer more than an hour or two of time, this meant that subjects completed different numbers of problems, depending on how long it took them to do the first problem. These numbers for book sections I–IV are: Spring Problem (10 subjects), the Torus Problem (8 subjects), and the Sisyphus Problem (7 subjects).

Almost all sessions were videotaped. Exceptions to this procedure occur in the instructional interviews in Chapters 10 and 18, where the interviewer as tutor was also introducing new questions and ideas in addition to encouraging thinking aloud. 7 min. All subjects favored the (correct) answer that the wide spring would stretch farther. But the subjects varied considerably in the types of explanations they gave for their prediction. The frequency of analogy usage was: Total number of spontaneous analogies generated 38 Number of subjects generating at least one analogy 8 Thus the proportion of subjects using analogies was high, indicating that analogy generation among experts is not limited to a few special individuals.

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