By L. Braganca
Because of adjustments within the composition of the inhabitants, society alterations consistently with appreciate to varied elements together with age-structure, kin composition and the supply of strength. adjustments result in occasions which are mirrored within the commissioning of constructions, that is progressively shifted from new development to the reuse and protection of current constructions. the variation of structures usually calls for the amendment of facades and the development in the back of. The scope of this motion in the price delivery and concrete improvement area is to enhance options and strategies for envelopes of structures built over the last 1/2 the twentieth century within the fee nations. In different phrases it truly is directed at the development envelopes of the so-called non-traditional structures. This booklet relies on a aid by way of fee, an intergovernmental ecu framework for foreign cooperation among nationally funded study actions. price creates clinical networks and allows scientists to collaborate in a large spectrum of actions in study and technology.IOS Press is a world technological know-how, technical and clinical writer of high quality books for lecturers, scientists, and execs in all fields. a number of the components we submit in: -Biomedicine -Oncology -Artificial intelligence -Databases and knowledge platforms -Maritime engineering -Nanotechnology -Geoengineering -All features of physics -E-governance -E-commerce -The wisdom economic climate -Urban reviews -Arms regulate -Understanding and responding to terrorism -Medical informatics -Computer Sciences
Read Online or Download COST C16 Improving the Quality of Existing Urban Building Envelopes IV: Facades and Roofs (Research in Architectural Engineering) PDF
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Because of alterations within the composition of the inhabitants, society alterations regularly with recognize to numerous components together with age-structure, kin composition and the provision of strength. alterations result in occasions which are mirrored within the commissioning of structures, that is steadily shifted from new development to the reuse and preservation of latest structures.
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Additional info for COST C16 Improving the Quality of Existing Urban Building Envelopes IV: Facades and Roofs (Research in Architectural Engineering)
In this perspective, and since 1980, rehabilitation of façades has been one of the predominant measures applied to modify, from outside, the image of the building without perturbing the life of inhabitants. From a technical point of view, the main technique used that consists in applying to the existing façade an external skin including thermal insulation offers numerous technical and functional advantages. 1 Standard envelopes in Germany The German climatic boundary conditions do not vary a lot.
The lowest value as defined above and the highest to walls with a weight of 100 kg /m2 or more. The latest revision describes a minimum U-value of 0,4 W/m2C. Windows and glazed walls should according to the code of 1961 be “2 panes of glass with a minimum distance of 12 mm” – equivalent to a U-value of 2,9 W/m2C. The original issued code of 1995 prescribed 1,8 W/m2C. The latest revision describes 2,3 W/m2C, which after 1st of January 2008 should be 2,0 W/m2C. 5 W/m2C for floors over basements, solid ground floors and roofs.
All rights reserved. 2 Requirements in Germany, that enforce a reaction to refurbish envelopes The below listed values are an excerpt and not complete list from the current energy directive in Germany. g. additional sound insulation etc) U < 1,70 (W/m²K) Non openable fixed glas-elements (also with exception +0,1 for special glazing) U < 1,50 (W/m²K) Flat roof (heated area to outside air) U < 0,25 (W/m²K) Sloped roof (heated area to outside air) U < 0,30 (W/m²K) Ceilings and walls to unheated areas U < 0,40 (W/m²K) Walls to ground U < 0,50 (W/m²K) 2 SPECIFICATION OF THE TECHNICAL SOLUTION Extenal thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS) are used in the first place to improve the thermal protection of external wall constructions and are becoming increasingly more important.