By Peter Kappeler, Carel P. van Schaik
Cooperative habit has been one of many enigmas of evolutionary idea because the days of Charles Darwin. The contributions to this ebook research the various points of cooperative habit in primates and people as a number of the world's major specialists evaluate and summarize the state-of-the-art of theoretical and empirical reports of cooperation. This e-book is therefore the 1st to bridge the space among parallel examine in primatology and experiences of people. Comparative as this strategy is, it highlights either universal ideas and elements of human forte with appreciate to cooperative habit.
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Additional info for Cooperation in Primates and Humans: Mechanisms and Evolution
After dispersal, these sets of females continue to socialize together, and rarely behave aggressively to one another (Starin 1994). Females cooperate in intergroup encounters and collectively attack potentially infanticidal nonresident males. If there is high reproductive skew within red colobus groups in the Gambia, then kinship might underlie high rates of cooperation within these female peer groups. In red howler (Alouatta seniculus) groups, opportunities for nepotism vary over the course of time.
Paternal kin discrimination does not extend to all behaviors. Females do not support paternal half-sisters at higher rates than non-kin, even though they selectively groom them (Widdig 2002). This pattern might be a byproduct of early biases in association patterns if mothers selectively associate with the fathers of their offspring. In baboons, mothers of newborn infants form close associations with adult males (reviewed by Palombit 1999) who may be the fathers of their infants. If two females associate with the same male at the same time, their infants may develop close ties.
1991) and ring-tailed lemurs (Pereira 1993). At the very least, these results suggest that kin selection supplements mutualism in the evolution of intervention behavior. It is generally agreed that when individuals intervene against animals higher ranking than themselves, they risk retaliation and incur more substantial costs. Support against dominant opponents is strongly kin-biased (Kurland 1977, Watanabe 1979, Walters 1980, Silk 1982, Chapais 1983, Cheney 1983a, Hunte & Horrocks 1986, Netto & van Hooff 1986, Pereira 1988, 1989, Harcourt & Stewart 1989, Chapais et al.