By Silke Rickert-Sperling, Robert G. Kelly, David J. Driscoll
This booklet presents accomplished insights into congenital center ailment from embryonic improvement via to medical positive factors, together with human genetics and our present wisdom of the underlying molecular pathways. it really is divided into 3 components: an advent to the advance of the guts and its vessels, an summary of the molecular pathways affecting the advance of varied cardiovascular constructions, and a prime part concentrating on the differing kinds of structural and nonstructural congenital middle ailments, together with their scientific beneficial properties, underlying genetic adjustments and similar animal versions and pathways. Taken jointly those chapters, that have been written by way of and for clinicians and researchers, offer an built-in and state of the art source for all those that are looking to research extra approximately either the medical facets and the genetic and molecular foundation of congenital middle disease.
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Extra resources for Congenital Heart Diseases: The Broken Heart: Clinical Features, Human Genetics and Molecular Pathways
Schott JJ, Benson DW, Basson CT et al (1998) Congenital heart disease caused by mutations in the transcription factor NKX2-5. Science 281:108–111 33. McCulley DJ, Black BL (2012) Transcription factor pathways and congenital heart disease. Curr Top Dev Biol 100:253–277 2 Normal Cardiac Anatomy and Clinical Evaluation David J. 1 Introduction Normal Heart Anatomy ................................................................................ 8 Electrical System Techniques, History, and Physical Examination ...............................................................
These early differentiating myocytes form the linear heart tube, with a posterior venous pole and anterior arterial pole, surrounding an endocardial tube; the linear heart tube gives rise to the apex of the left ventricle in the deﬁnitive heart (Fig. 1b). Cardiac progenitor cells in pharyngeal mesoderm adjacent to the early heart tube subsequently add to the growing cardiac poles, giving rise to right ventricular and outﬂow tract myocardium at the arterial pole and atrial myocardium at the venous pole .
1). In the mouse embryo, which provides a mammalian model suitable for genetic manipulation, the early heart tube forms and begins beating at about embryonic day (E) 8 which is equivalent to 3 weeks of human gestation. At this stage the tube is linear, with an anterior outﬂow tract and posterior inﬂow region, connecting to the circulatory system. As it grows, the cardiac tube rapidly bends leftwards and then loops to the right so that the mature outﬂow and inﬂow tracts, the arterial and venous poles, are aligned anteriorly.