By Susan Macdonald
Книга Concrete development Pathology Concrete development PathologyКниги Строительство Автор: Susan Macdonald Год издания: 2002 Формат: pdf Издат.:Wiley-Blackwell Страниц: 328 Размер: 3,6 ISBN: 0632052511 Язык: Английский0 (голосов: zero) Оценка:This ebook bargains with the analysis, diagnosis and service matters linked to concrete buildings.Since the patenting and next large-scale manufacture of recent cement, within the 19th century, concrete has develop into essentially the most widespread building fabrics on the planet. these desirous about development pathology now have to comprehend difficulties particularly with regards to concrete and to spot acceptable equipment of fix and remediation.
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Additional resources for Concrete Building Pathology
What is most remarkable, however, is that virtually all the concrete in the nineteenth century was made and placed by human power. Cranes were rare, and hoists were human-powered. This makes many of the massive Victorian construction projects even more astonishing. Design There are three main components to the design of concrete structures— the concrete mix design, the choice of external dimensions to the concrete, and the location, number and size of any steel reinforcement inside. Until almost the end of the nineteenth century, the ﬁrst two were done on the basis of proportions (‘rules of thumb’) developed by longestablished practice and embracing adequate safety; the third was largely not relevant until the 1890s, and is discussed in the next section.
Maritime, river and canal-side structures, industrial buildings, some bridges and, of course, many, many foundations (Chrimes, 1996b). From the 1820s many buildings, bridges and other structures built near water had concrete foundations. Telford’s St Katharine Docks in London had a 300-mm bed of concrete beneath the dock wall, as did most similar structures built during the expansion of London’s port in the 1850s and 1860s (Sharp, 20 Part 1 The Nature and Use of Concrete Buildings and Structures Fig.
It offered ‘articles by the foremost English, American and Continental specialists, theoretical and practical articles on the design and execution of Reinforced Concrete work, Special Systems of Reinforced Concrete Constructions, profusely illustrated with photographs and a number of Working drawings’. 9 p)! A standard notation for reinforced concrete calculations was developed and eventually adopted from 1911. Design charts, graphs and formulae were used widely to save the time of busy designers working in a commercial environment and bearing in mind that the ‘computer’ of the day was a slide rule (Marsh and Dunn, 1908).