Cold Spray Technology by Anatolii Papyrin, Vladimir Kosarev, Sergey Klinkov, Anatolii

By Anatolii Papyrin, Vladimir Kosarev, Sergey Klinkov, Anatolii Alkhimov, Vasily M. Fomin

The subject of this booklet is chilly Spray expertise. chilly Spray is a strategy of making use of coatings by means of exposing a metal or dielectric substrate to a excessive pace (300 to 1200 m/s) jet of small (1 to 50 µm) debris sped up by way of a supersonic jet of compressed gasoline. This approach relies at the choice of the mix of particle temperature, speed, and measurement that enables spraying on the lowest temperature attainable. within the chilly Spray procedure, powder debris are speeded up via the supersonic fuel jet at a temperature that's regularly less than the melting element of the fabric, leading to coating formation from debris within the stable country. therefore, the deleterious results of high-temperature oxidation, evaporation, melting, crystallization, residual stresses, gasoline unlock, and different universal difficulties for standard thermal spray tools are minimized or eliminated.

This booklet is the 1st of its style at the chilly Spray procedure. Cold Spray Technology covers a large spectrum of assorted elements of the chilly Spray know-how, together with gas-dynamics, physics of interplay of high-speed strong debris with a substrate in addition to apparatus, applied sciences, and functions. Cold Spray Technology comprises the result of greater than two decades of unique experiences (1984-2005) carried out on the Institute of Theoretical and utilized Mechanics of the Siberian department of the Russian Academy of technology, in addition to the result of stories carried out at many of the study centres round the world.

The authors' objective is threefold. the 1st aim is to give an explanation for uncomplicated ideas and merits of the chilly Spray strategy. the second one aim is, to offer functional details on applied sciences and gear. The 3rd aim is to provide the present nation of study and improvement during this box over the world.

The publication presents assurance and knowledge that might be of curiosity for clients of chilly Spray know-how in addition to for different coating specialists. this day the chilly Spray process is famous via global prime scientists and experts. a large spectrum of study is being performed at many examine centres and firms in lots of countries.

  • New method of spray coatings
  • Results are really natural coatings
  • Low spray temperature with no degradation of powder and substrate materials
  • High productiveness, excessive deposition efficiency
  • High operational protection due to absence of extreme temperature fuel jets, radiation and explosive gases
  • Excellent thermal and electric conductivity
  • Wide spectrum of functions due to vital merits of the process

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Thus, the results presented show that the use of a supersonic jet of air (nitrogen) mixture with helium and having a stagnation temperature of ∼ 300 K and the use of a slightly preheated ( T ≤ 500–600 K) supersonic (M = 2 0–3 0) air (nitrogen) jet allowed us to obtain coatings from most metals and many alloys (Al, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sn, V, Co, Fe, 28 Cold Spray Technology 16 800 11 200 T, °C 4 3 5, 6 5600 1 7 2 0 0 300 600 900 1200 vp, m /s Fig. 28. Diagram of jet temperatures (T ) and particle velocities (vp used in different spraying methods.

With the increase in particle velocity the situation is changed. Particles start adhering to the substrate and the probability of particle attachment increases with the increase in particle velocity (Fig. 22b,c) Thus, we can see that there are two characteristic processes in the course of interaction of “cold” particles with a “cold” substrate, which are separated by a certain critical Discovery of the Cold Spray Phenomenon and its Basic Features 23 20 μm Fig. 21. Appearance of aluminum particles.

25. The processing of such photographs together with studying the substrate surface showed that all single particles with vp ≤ vcr1 vp ≈ 250 m/s, Fig. 25a) are reflected. As the velocity increases within the range vp ≥ vcr1 , the character of particle– substrate interaction is drastically changed: a rapidly growing coating is formed on the substrate surface (vp ≈ 900 m/s, Fig. 25b). It is seen from Fig. 24 that typical values of vcr1 for various metals (Al, Cu, Ni, and Zn) are within 500–700 m/s.

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