By Ewa Dabrowska
Drawing at the conceptual gear of cognitive grammar, this article goals to convey order into the array of makes use of through offering a unified semantic characterization of the dative case which subsumes either "lexically ruled" and "free" datives.
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Additional info for Cognitive Semantics and the Polish Dative
79) b. Przypalil mi si$ kotlet. ' (79) c. Zlamal mi siq olöwek. 7. Verbs of compliance and resistance One's sphere of influence may include people as well as objects and will grow or shrink as people physically move into or out of it (example (54) above). However, just as one may gain the right to use an object in an act that does not involve actual physical transfer, so individuals may come under the TP's control by submitting to his demands. The individual who makes the decision appears in the nominative case and the individual whose sphere of influence grows as a result of this act of submission is expressed by a dative NP.
41e), which describes an event which involved a part of the body, uncontroversially a central element of the personal sphere, is fully acceptable. So is (41d), which Wierzbicka (1988: 412) attributes to the fact that clothing and other things worn on the body can be regarded as extensions thereof. Notice, however, that the sentence would be appropriate even if at the time of the inspection Jas was not wearing the garment mentioned in the sentence. What justifies the use of the dative case in (4Id) is not only the closeness of clothing to the body, but the fact that searching one's pockets is considered an invasion of one's privacy.
Good deed for good deed). In the latter case, although no physical object actually enters the TP's personal sphere, it is still seen as growing as a result of the action because the agent acts in accordance with the target person's wishes. This kind of abstract expansion of the sphere of influence will be discussed in more detail further on. One's sphere of influence expands whenever a new object enters it, so dative marking on the recipient is compatible with any event that involves acquisition, including active seizure of control over an object.