By E. Hollnagel
The growing to be dependence of operating environments on advanced know-how has created many demanding situations and bring about quite a few injuries. even supposing the standard of association and administration in the paintings atmosphere performs a tremendous position in those injuries, the importance of person human motion (as a right away reason and as a mitigating issue) is indisputable. This has created a necessity for brand spanking new, built-in ways to coincidence research and chance evaluate.
This ebook detailing using CREAM is, as a result, either well timed and worthy. It offers an mistakes taxonomy which integrates person, technological and organizational components in line with cognitive engineering rules. as well as the mandatory theoretical origin, it offers a step by step description of ways the taxonomy should be utilized to examine in addition to are expecting functionality utilizing a context-dependent cognitive version.
CREAM can be utilized as a second-generation human reliability research (HRA) procedure in probabilistic defense evaluate (PSA), as a stand-alone strategy for twist of fate research and as a part of a bigger layout strategy for interactive structures. particularly, using CREAM will allow method designers and possibility analysts to: • establish initiatives that require human cognition and for that reason depend upon cognitive reliability • ascertain the stipulations the place cognitive reliability and resulting danger will be diminished • offer an appraisal of the implications of human functionality on approach security that are utilized in PSA.
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Additional resources for Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method
This may be equivalent to making a PSA for organisations and management as well as for individual human actions (cf. Hollnagel & Wreathall, 1996). If the purpose of PSA is to assess the effects of operational improvements, then HRA needs to focus on the traditional issues of layout and labelling, perhaps with an element of training and procedures thrown in. If, on the other hand, the purpose of PSA is to assess safety requirements, then it must consider much more complex "causes" of accidents, extending from flawed assumptions in the design and setting of technical specifications to improper or inadequate training for off-normal conditions.
The missing element was a way of applying the same basic components to performance prediction and HRA. It was strongly felt by many of those involved that the classification scheme, the model, and the method could be used as the main elements in an HRA approach that would be impervious to the criticisms raised against first-generation HRA (Dougherty, 1990). This book builds on and continues the previous work, and proposes an integrated method for analysis and prediction relating to human action failures, with special emphasis on the notion of cognitive reliability.
In parallel to these theoretical clarifications, a suggestion to use the phenotype / genotype distinction to construct a workable classification scheme was developed by Hollnagel & Cacciabue (1991). The same paper also proposed the notion of the Simple Model of Cognition (SMoC) as a basis for the structure of the classification scheme. , 1990). This project produced a highly useful summary of the many descriptive terms that had been developed through years of practical accident and error analysis, but which had rarely been systematically evaluated.