Clonal Forestry II: Conservation and Application by W. J. Libby, M. R. Ahuja (auth.), Dr. Mulkh-Raj Ahuja, Dr.

By W. J. Libby, M. R. Ahuja (auth.), Dr. Mulkh-Raj Ahuja, Dr. William J. Libby (eds.)

Provided listed here are either underlying thought and up to date effects about the propagation and use of clones in examine and in creation forestry. state of the art technology and case histories treating construction, trying out, multiplication and deployment of clones are provided. Agroforestry, city forestry and christmas-tree farming are coated, in addition to extra conventional multiple-use forestry and high-intensity forestry for biomass, wooden and fiber creation. Clonal forestry is contrasted to the more moderen advancements of "family forestry", and the classical tree-improvement procedure counting on seed-orchards. The historical past of clonal forestry is roofed with experiences of numerous centuries adventure with Sugi in Japan and poplars in Europe. The affects and use of clones within the contexts of genetic conservation and biodiversity are mentioned, as are the legislation and laws affecting clonal creation and deployment.

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From dysgenic to progenic harvest, from operational reforestation to tree improvement, from landscaping to restoration, trees are cut, grown, and replanted in ways that can contaminate, impoverish, or alter the natural genetic architecture of forests (Ledig 1986, 1988; Millar 1987; Millar and Libby 1989a, 1991). The use of clones poses special threats to genetic diversity in restoration, tree improvement, and general forestry. With the ability to replicate exact genotypes comes the potential to reduce diversity in restored forests and plantations by planting many copies of one or a few genotypes.

Q. x hispanica Lamarck Ib Ib 5 7 1 5 1 15 o o o 1 J. Kleinschmit et al. 28 Table 3 continued No. of cultivars Species Total New since 1945C Q. libani Oliver Q. palustris Muenchausen Q. phellos L. rubra L. Q. shumardii Buckley Q. velutina Lamarck 5 1 5 0 Tilia americana L. T. x europaea L. 1'. f1avescens A. Braun T. platyphyllos Scopoli T. tomentosa Moench TIlia other hybrids 8 4 18 3 27 12 2 Total 941 6 1 1 0 4 0 16 1 5 2 1 343 aMany named before 1900. bOne seed-propagated cultivar. COate of origin is uncertain in some cases, and could be before 1945 despite later citations.

Kleinschmit et aL Some of these are already normally deployed as clones; in others, cloning research and practice is well started. Other as-yet rarely cultivated species may join the above list, and selection of outstanding clones will be a likely route of their domestication for agroforestry purposes. Risk management by the deployment of genetic diversity is a challenging problem. This is already achieved by the strategy of mixed cropping on the species level. But within the tree component, particularly if cloning becomes common, there is the risk of too few clones being deployed.

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