Central Works of Philosophy 4: The Twentieth Century: Moore by John Shand

By John Shand

Relevant Works of Philosophy is an important multi-volume selection of essays at the center texts of the Western philosophical culture. From Plato's Republic to the current day, the 5 volumes diversity over 2,500 years of philosophical writing overlaying the simplest, such a lot consultant, and such a lot influential paintings of a few of our best philosophers. every one essay has been specifically commissioned and gives an summary of the paintings, transparent and authoritative exposition of its imperative rules, and an evaluate of the work's significance. jointly those books supply an unmatched spouse for learning and interpreting philosophy, one who introduces the reader to the masterpieces of the western philosophical canon. The interval, 1900-60, which this quantity covers, witnessed adjustments in logical and linguistic research some distance past whatever dreamt of within the earlier historical past of the topic. the amount starts with chapters at the key texts of the Cambridge philosophers, Moore, Russell and Wittgenstein, which jointly marked the emergence of "analytical" philosophy. The Vienna Circle of the Nineteen Twenties, and the improvement of logical positivism within the Nineteen Thirties and Forties are represented through chapters on basic works via Carnap and Ayer. William James's Pragmatism, which formulated pragmatism's epistemology and made it recognized during the global represents within the quantity the unique principles of the yankee pragmatists. Essays on Husserl's the belief of Phenomenology, Heidegger's Being and Time, Sartre's Being and Nothingness and Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of belief conceal the center texts of the highly major phenomenological stream. Of the linguistic philosophy that ruled the English-speaking global within the instant postwar years, Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations and Ryle's the idea that of the brain are mentioned in flip. the quantity concludes with Karl Popper's influential account of the character of science..

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A classic instance of this is Russell’s “theory of definite descriptions”. See “On Denoting”, Mind 14 (October 1905), 479–93. Widely reprinted, as in Bertrand Russell, Logic and Knowledge, R. C. ) (London: Unwin Hyman, 1956), 39–56. 16. See, Bertrand Russell, Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits (London: Allen & Unwin, 1948). 17. Those wishing for a synoptic view of Russell would do well to read Bertrand Russell, My Philosophical Development (London: Allen & Unwin, 1959). 18. This is a view found in the ideas of Franz Brentano (1838–1917), who was a major proximate influence on phenomenology.

Principia is not an especially original book, and many contemporary reviewers criticized Moore on this account (see Hurka 2003). Moore’s claim that ethics cannot be subsumed under some natural science had been a common theme among intuitionists since the eighteenth century, and it was not uncommon for these intuitionists to claim that goodness is simple and indefinable. His pluralism about the good was also not new, nor was his combination of this pluralism with consequentialism. The doctrine of organic unities (the view that the value of a complex thing need not be equal to the sum of the value of its parts) can be found in Bradley, and Moore’s argument for the view that goodness is a non-natural property (the open question argument) can be found in Sidgwick.

19 1 G. E. Moore Principia Ethica Philip Stratton-Lake G. E. Moore’s Principia Ethica was published in 1903. In the book Moore defends four theses. The first two are meta-ethical, about the nature of good, whereas the third and fourth express his first-order evaluative views about which acts are right and which things are good. The first thesis is that goodness is the fundamental ethical notion. The fundamental nature of good for ethics means that it cannot be defined with reference to other ethical notions.

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