By Chris M. Wood
Many physiological techniques are regulated by means of the stream of ions into and out of organs, tissues, and cells. in the past decade, quite a few new thoughts and techniques have contributed to a deeper figuring out of the myriad impacts ions have at the functionality and constitution of organisms. From respiratory and excretion to neurological keep watch over and metabolic processing, ions and their rules occupy a significant function in body structure of fish in addition to different organisms. Key gains * complete replace of ionic rules in fish * makes a speciality of wide array of organ structures and the effect of ions on organ process functionality * Contributions from a world workforce
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Additional info for Cellular and Molecular Approaches to Fish Ionic Regulation
Copyright 0 1990, Wiley-Liss, a division of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ) 40 CHRISTOPHER A. LORETZ across the membrane, z is the valence, and R, T, and F have their usual meanings. For thermodynamically favorable transport reactions, A E < 0. Transepithelial electrical profiles for open-circuited tissues are available from intracellular microelectrode studies (Fig. 4 and 5 ) . For the winter flounder and the goby, the cell membrane potentials are similar in magnitude to those seen in other vertebrates despite the observed serosanegative transepithelial potential; for tissues bathed bilaterally in normal saline solutions resembling plasma, V , of - 60 to - 70 mV and V , of - 5 to - 15 mV are typical.
40- 9 ' -60. -80- t + SMS 201-995 0- F > -20. E Q 5 -40-60- Fig. 5. Conventional glass intracellular microelectrode recordings of apical membrane potential (VJ in goby posterior intestinal epithelial cells in situ in the epithelium. The deflections in the individual traces are the change in V , in response to constant transepithelial current pulses (10-50 pA cm-2). Individual impalements are separated by a return to zero of the V , trace. 0 mM BaZ+causes depolarization of V, by reducing apical membrane K+ conductance.
And Bern, H. A. (1982a). Effects of epinephrine, glucagon and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on chloride secretion by teleost opercular membrane, J. Comp. Physiol. 146, 27-34. , and Lahlou, B. (1979). The mechanism of coupled transport of sodium and chloride in isolated urinary bladder of the trout. J . Physiol. (London)294, 21 1-222. , Saltzberg, S. , Hediger, M. , Brenner, B. , and Hebert, S. C. (1993). Primary structure and functional expression of a cDNA encoding the thiazide-sensitive, electroneutral sodium-chloride cotransporter.