By Bernard Comrie, Maria Polinsky
This quantity brings jointly 18 typological experiences of causative and comparable structures (transitivity, voice, different expressions of reason) through 19 students from North the US, Western Europe, and Russia. The inspirations for the quantity is the pioneering paintings on causative buildings by means of the Leningrad Typology workforce; a number of of the participants have shut connections to the constitution participants of that workforce, others have favored this paintings from a distance. the amount as a complete relies at the inspiration of causative buildings as embracing either morphology and syntax, with a huge semantic part besides. as well as basic stories about the morpho syntactic and semantic typology and the background of causative buildings and kin to different phenomena, the subsequent person languages are handled intimately: Russian, English, Dutch, Svan, Even, Korean, Yukaghir, Alutor, Aleut, Haruai, Dogon, Athabaskan languages. the amount could be of curiosity to typologists, to different linguists attracted to causative structures and transitivity kin, and to all who're drawn to the linguistic expression of causal kinfolk.
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8. The difference between this Polish and the above Ukrainian construction is, first, that in Ukrainian an expression of the agent (as a CO agent ) is possible, while it is excluded in Polish; and second, in Ukrainian, the verbal form, although it is invariable), admits the copula (Bulo zbudovano), while in Polish it does not nor with the deletion of both DSyntAs (full suppressive reflexive), (Zostalo zbudowano). 9. I do not know of a case where the SemAs are identified with the deletion of the DSyntA I, which would correspond to a subjectal suppressive reflexive: x I Y II In the calculus of possible particular voices I ignore both possibilities.
CLAIX. 1984. Travaux du Cercle linguistique dAix-en-Provence, 2, Le passif. Aix-enProvence: Université de Provence. Comrie, Bernard. 1977. "In defense of spontaneous demotion: The impersonal passive. In Cole, Peter; and Sadock, Jerold (eds), Grammatical relations (= Syntax and Semantics, vol. 8), 47-58. New York: Academic Press. Constable, Peter. 1990. "Reflexive in Veracruz Huastec" (MS). Davies, William. 1984. "Antipassive: Choctaw evidence for a universal characteriza tion". In Perlmutter and Rosen (eds) 1984: 331-376.
FEM 'Mother is reading ([ lit. 'at'] a newspaper)', where the verb is intransitive, the GS (again, 'mother') is in the nominative, while 'newspaper', which became and O indir , is in the ergative. The verb agrees only with the GS (via both its parts: the suffix -r(i) of the copula and the prefix r- of the gerund); the O indir is optional. The sentence c. *Neš +li r +wčc +uli sa +ri. is ungrammatical. The sentence d. Nes +li b +učc +uli sa +ri. means 'Mother is reading it', with the object pronoun (quasi-)obligatorily elided in an obvious context, but still reflected by the objectai prefix b- on the verb.