By Roberto Rinaldi, Laurie Peter, Ferdi Schüth, Heinz Frei, Tim S. Zhao, Dmitry Murzin, Bert Sels, Atsushi Fukuoka, Jose L.G Fierro, Regina Palkovits, Jan-Dierk Grunwaldt, Jurgen Klankermayer, Eduardo Falabella Sousa-Aguiar, An Philippaerts, Walter Leitner,
The effective conversion of biomass to value-added items has develop into an immense study region within the pursuit of choices to petroleum-based feedstocks; hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis are vital instruments to attaining this objective. This e-book offers complete assurance of the several catalysts for those reactions, concentrating on the effective conversion of bio-based molecules and biopolymers.
The editor, Roberto Rinaldi, is an stated chief within the box of biomass conversion, and has introduced jointly specialists from around the globe to envision all features of the method, together with the solvents, catalysts and feedstocks utilized in sleek biorefineries. attention is additionally given to the basics of operating a plant, reminiscent of apparatus and safeguard issues.
As the biorefinery expands to fulfill the most recent discoveries in biomass conversion, this e-book offers a radical grounding within the topic and may be a vital connection with researchers on the vanguard of getting to know new items, businesses wishing to scale-up biomass conversion, and postgraduate scholars of sustainable chemistry and chemical engineering.
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Additional info for Catalytic Hydrogenation for Biomass Valorization
S. Sarkar and A. Kumar, Trans. ASABE, 2009, 52, 519. 12. J. Schulze and H. Gaensslen, Chem. , 202. 13. C. Mansilla, J. Louyrette, S. Albou, C. Bourasseau and S. Dautremont, Energy, 2013, 55, 996. 14. NYMEX Herny Hub future for April 2014, as of March 24th 2014. 15. P. L. Spath and M. K. Mann, Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming, NREL/TP-570-27637 (2001). 16. C. Acar and I. Dincer, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2014, 39, 1. 17. B. L. Salvi, K. A. Subramanian and N.
5 to 7 nm) in a Rh/graphite catalyst. 3 to 5 nm) in a Pt/graphite catalyst. Alternatively, the unsaturated alcohol selectivity can be improved by increasing the interaction between carbonyl group and catalyst surface. For example, acid sites can activate the carbonyl group, thus decreasing the energy level of the acceptor molecular orbital p*CO. In a recent work by Luo and coworkers,14 crotonaldehyde was hydrogenated to crotyl alcohol in the presence of an Ir/ZrO2 catalyst. The formation of crotyl alcohol is claimed to take place on the interfacial region and to involve both Ir and Lewis acid sites.
The modification of ReOx/SiO2 with noble metals showed that the best promotion eﬀect occurring in the presence of Pd. The products of the consecutive hydrogenolysis of stearic alcohol and the decarboxylation of stearic acid were n-octadecane and n-heptadecane. 3 Reaction pathways for the hydrogenation of carboxylic acid over Re-promoted Pt and Pd catalysts. Adapted from refs. 33 and 34. hydrogenolysis of stearic alcohol instead of the decarboxylation of stearic acid. In contrast, as reported by Rooney and coworkers,33 the experiments performed in the presence of Pt–Re/TiO2 catalyst showed a high selectivity to n-heptadecane, indicating that the consecutive decarboxylation of stearic acid should be the main side reaction.