By Michael Artman, D. Woodrow Benson, Deepak Srivastava, Makoto Nakazawa
Congenital cardiovascular malformations are the one commonest kind of beginning disorder. as a result a greater figuring out of the mechanisms considering either common cardiac improvement and the formation of cardiovascular structural defects is of super value. This ebook brings jointly the prime scientists from all over the world who're actively engaged in reviews of the etiology, morphogenesis and body structure of congenital cardiovascular ailments. A large number of methods, ideas, experimental versions and reviews of human genetics mix to make this a very awesome and certain treatise in this urgent subject. Cardiovascular improvement and Congenital Malformations is split into unique different types, each one targeting a specific element of cardiovascular improvement. Sections are observed via editorial overviews which combine new findings and position the data right into a broader context.
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Additional info for Cardiovascular Development and Congenital Malformations: Molecular & Genetic Mechanisms
2 Komuro I, Izumo S. Csx: a murine homeobox-containing gene speciﬁcally expressed in the developing heart. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90: 8145–9. 3 Tanaka M, Chen Z, Bartunkova S, Yamasaki N, Izumo S. 5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. Development 1999; 126: 1269–80. 4 Lints TJ, Parsons LM, Hartley L, Lyons I, Harvey RP. 5: a novel murine homeobox gene expressed in early heart progenitor cells and their myogenic descendants. Development 1993; 119: 419–31.
6 Yu X, St Amand TR, Wang S et al. Differential expression and functional analysis of Pitx2 isoforms in regulation of heart looping in the chick. Development 2001; 128: 1005–13. 7 Taber LA, Lin IE, Clark E. Mechanics of cardiac looping. Dev Dynamics 1995; 203: 42–50. 8 Wessels A, Anderson RH, Marwald RR et al. Atrial development in the human heart: an immunohistochemical 13 study with emphasis on the role of mesenchymal tissues. Anat Rec 2000; 259: 288–300. 9 Webb S, Brown NA, Wessels A, Anderson RH.
Our next step was to ﬁnd out whether calcium regulated calmodulin–inv protein interaction. We focused on the IQ2 site, since inv mRNA injection into Xenopus embryos showed that the IQ2 site is critical for its function, as described below. We undertook two experiments. The ﬁrst was a gel overlay assay. Membranes, onto which GST–inv fusion proteins were transferred, were incubated with biotinylated calmodulin in a buffer containing or excluding calcium, and then incubated with avidin-conjugated peroxidase.