Cardiopatías Congénitas Diagnóstico - Manual Clínico by Néstor Calafell Vázquez

By Néstor Calafell Vázquez

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Fibroelastosis endocárdica. Defecto del tabique ventricular. Persistencia del conducto arterioso. Mixoma auricular izquierdo. Crecimiento del ventrículo derecho - Se observa en: Hipertensión arterial pulmonar. Tetralogía de Fallot. Síndrome de Eisenmenger. Corto circuito auricular. Regurgitación valvular de la tricúspide. 24 - Estenosis mitral. Miocardiopatía del ventrículo derecho. Estenosis e insuficiencia valvular pulmonar. Transposición completa de los grandes vasos. Drenaje anómalo de las venas pulmonares.

Dilatación de las venas del cuello. - Edema. Signos radiológicos - Área cardíaca aumentada. - Hilios congestivos. - Líneas de Kerley. Los signos de la insuficiencia cardíaca derecha son: aumento de la presión venosa sistémica, hepatomegalia. El edema es menos frecuente y en ocasiones es mínimo. En la 28 insuficiencia cardíaca izquierda los signos más comunes son: disnea, estertores pulmonares, ritmo de galope y evidencias radiológicas de congestión en ambos pulmones. Diagnóstico diferencial En las primeras horas de nacido, un número considerable de enfermedades puede producir insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva o simularla.

E. Flutter auricular y fibrilación auricular. En el flutter auricular la frecuencia de las aurículas es de 220 a 240 latidos por minuto y tienen el aspecto de los dientes de un serrucho; y los complejos QRS son normales. Es raro en el niño y puede observarse en: miocardiopatías, cardiopatías congénitas, en corazones normales y en la miocardiopatía auricular. La fibrilación auricular ocurre en niños mayores que tienen una cardiopatía mitral reumática y en los casos con intoxicación digitálica y nivel de potasio bajo en la sangre.

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