By L. Pitaevskii, S. Stringari
This publication is an introductory textual content to the physics of Bose-Einstein condensation. This phenomenon, first expected by way of Einstein in 1925 has been learned experimentally in 1995 in a amazing sequence of experiments whose significance has been well-known by means of the award of the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics. The condensate is de facto a brand new country of subject, the place quantum-mechanical wave services of atoms behave as coherent subject waves within the comparable manner as coherent gentle waves when it comes to a laser. The authors supply a theoretical presentation of the most thoughts underlying the physics of dilute atomic gases in stipulations of tremendous low temperatures the place quantum results play a vital function. the most attempt is dedicated to dialogue of the suitable theoretical facets exhibited by way of those systms, corresponding to the idea that of order parameter, lengthy variety order, superfluidity and coherence. The mathematical formalism is gifted in a kind handy for sensible use. The ebook develops the speculation of Bose gases ranging from the pioneering Bogoliubov process and provides precise emphasis to the recent actual beneficial properties exhibited through non-uniform gases that are produced within the contemporary experiments with magnetic and optical traps. those positive factors comprise the decision of the equilibrium profiles, the collective oscillations, the mechanism of the growth of the gasoline after liberating the capture, the interference styles acquired by way of overlapping condensates, the rotational homes revealing the results of superfluidity the Josephson-like phenomena assocaited with the coherence of the section, the past suggest box phenomena exhibited via quantum gases in stipulations of lowered dimensionality. The publication additionally discusses the alaogies and changes with the physics of ""classical"" superfluids like liquid helium and introduces many of the significant positive aspects of trapped Fermi gases at low temperature, stating the implications of superfluidity.
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