Bipolar Disorder: An Evidence-Based Guide to Manic by Kostas N. Fountoulakis

By Kostas N. Fountoulakis

This e-book examines intimately the diagnostic method of manic depressive (bipolar) affliction, with detailed connection with the borderline zones with unipolar melancholy and schizoaffective sickness. between different diagnostic matters thought of are combined episodes (often misdiagnosed via psychiatrists), quick biking, and the confusion with character issues. in the context of analysis and realizing of the dynamics of bipolar ailment, temperament, personality, and character are all generally mentioned. Neurocognitive deficit and incapacity are coated, as are components of evolutionary biology and behaviour. with reference to remedy, the main concentration is on evidence-based treatment, almost about the result of randomized managed trialsand meta-analyses; additionally, modern directions and destiny tendencies are tested. cautious attention can be given to the psychosocial remedy process and matters on the subject of societal and monetary expenses and burdens.

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Example text

Although depression is characterized by depressed mood, an important feature in its psychopathology is depressive thought content. Thought disorder is also called ‘cognitive disorder’, and this term should be distinguished from ‘neurocognitive disorder’ which refers to disorders of concentration, memory, executive function, etc. (this distinction is not mandatory, however, and many authors use both terms in a confusing way). The fundamental depressive thoughts are negative evaluations of the self, the world and the future (the negative triad) which according to cognitive theory are central to the aetiopathogenesis of depression.

Frequency of episodes/rapid cycling 10. Psychotic features 11. Neurocognitive disorder 12. Functional deficit and disability 13. Drug/alcohol abuse 14. Comorbid anxiety and other mental disorders 15. Self-destructive behaviour and suicidality TEAS 1 Euthymia Symptoms Symptoms 2 3 4 5 1 TEAS Acute phase Continuation 2 Maintenance 3 Depression Acute phase Fig. 2 Graphic representation of the alteration of types of mood episodes and the course of bipolar disorder. 1 Response, 2 remission, 3 relapse, 4 recovery, 5 recurrence.

1976). 3 Modern Era 19 Fig. 19 Jean Delay (1907–1987) term ‘mood normalizer’ was proposed by Mogens Schou for lithium (Schou 1963) after the term ‘mood stabilizer’, which was used during the 1950s to refer to a combination of amphetamine and a barbiturate to treat patients with neurotic instability but not patients with BD. Lithium treatment for BD was approved in 1961 in France, in 1966 in the UK, in 1967 in Germany and in 1970 in Italy and the USA. In 1974, this application was extended to its use as a preventive agent for manic–depressive illness (Mitchell and Hadzi-Pavlovic 2000).

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