By Helmut König, Gottfried Unden, Jürgen Fröhlich
The historic beverage wine is the results of the fermentation of grape needs to. This n- urally and reasonably solid product has been and is getting used by way of many human societies as a typical or relaxing beverage, as an enormous skill to enhance the standard of consuming water in old instances, as therapeutical agent, and as a spiritual image. over the last centuries, wine has turn into an item of medical curiosity. during this admire varied classes might be saw. before everything, basic observations have been recorded, and hence, the chemical foundation and the involvement of microorg- isms have been elucidated. At a later degree, the clinical paintings ended in the research of the numerous minor and hint compounds in wine, the detection and knowing of the biochemical reactions and strategies, the variety of microorganisms concerned, and the variety in their numerous actions. lately, the point of interest shifted to the genetic foundation of the microorganisms and the molecular facets of the cells, together with metabolism, membrane shipping, and rules. those diverse levels of wine examine have been decided by means of the medical tools that have been identified and on hand on the respective time. the hot “molecular” procedure is predicated at the research of the genetic code and has resulted in major effects that weren't even possible a couple of many years in the past. This new wealth of data is being awarded within the Biology of Microorganisms on Grapes, in needs to, and in Wine.
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Additional resources for Biology of Microorganisms on Grapes, in Must and in Wine
On the other hand, damaged grapes contain larger AAB populations (Barbe et al. 2001), mainly belonging to the Acetobacter species (Acetobacter aceti and Acetobacter pasteurianus). In these conditions, the sugars released from the spoiled grapes can be metabolised by yeasts into ethanol, which is a preferred carbon source of the Acetobacter species that overgrow Gluconobacter (Joyeux et al. 1984b; Grossman and Becker 1984; Gonzalez et al. 2005). However, the descriptions of new AAB species will increase the number of species isolated from this substrate.
Academic Press, London, pp 17–27 Radler F, Yannissis C (1972) Decomposition of tartrate by lactobacilli. Arch Microbiol 82:219–239 Raibaud P, Galpin HV, Ducluzeau R, Mocquot G, Oliver G (1973) La genre Lactobacillus dans le tube digestif du rat. I. Charactère des souches homofermentaires isolèes de rats holo- et gnotoxeniques. Ann de l’Institut Pasteur 124A:83–109 Rammelberg M, Radler F (1990) Antibacterial polypeptides of Lactobacillus species. , vol. 1, The microbiology of wine and vinifications.
Aceti is the major strain in the final stages of fermentation (Joyeux et al. 1984a; Drysdale and Fleet 1988; Gonzalez et al. 2005). However, we have also found G. oxydans, Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens and Gluconacetobacter hansenii in higher percentages as well as A. pasteurianus in the final stages of fermentation (Gonzalez et al. 2004) or recently, Acetobacter oeni has been proposed as a new species isolated in wine (Silva et al. 2006). Thus, this pattern of species evolution seems somewhat reductionist and may depend on multiple oenological factors such as SO2, pH, ethanol, low temperature and yeast inoculation.