Biology of Coccinellidae by Ivo Hodek

By Ivo Hodek

This e-book offers the 1st monograph of Coccinellidae. even though the gang reveals inclusion either in Clausen's (1940) "Entomophagous bugs" and in Balduf's (1935) "Entomophagous Coleoptera", reference in those works is proscribed to 3 and twenty pages respectively. furthermore, the final thirty years when you consider that those books seemed have ~een loads of paintings at the workforce. using pesticides principally destroyed the early makes an attempt at organic regulate and curiosity remained low for so long as pesticides seemed particularly winning in spite of the fact that, the issues of pesticides quickly grew to become obvious, and within the final decade there were large advancements in organic regulate, rather in eombin

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Second antennal segment elongate, usually cylindrical. (Fig. ) · . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subgen. Pullus Muls. (16) Third antennal segment only slightly developed, transparent, indistinct. Legs. ) ........... P. sutltralis Thunbg. 43 Third antennal segment well developed and distinctly noticeable. Second antenna! gment longer than first. ) . P. auritus Thunbg. Legs and ventrum green. Prothorax with 8 tubercules, each of them with one long and two small setae.

If this is not used correctly, identifications at species, generic and sometimes higher taxonomical categories will be difficult. We follow Gage's terminology for the different structures on the body of larvae: seta, chalaza, tubercule, struma, parascolus, sentus and scolus (Gage 1920). A seta is situated directly on the body surface. A chalaza is also a seta, but is mounted on a small cylindrical or round appendix, which is called a base. A tubercule is a round protuberance covered with setae.

Pilosus Say. 6 (5) Metathoracic plates very narrowed at internal margin, with a round protuberance behind. Setae on abdomen without sclerotized plates at base. 7 (8) Front tibiotarsi almost uniformly thin, elongated, 5 times as long as wide. On abdominal segments 4 large setae are situated between the foramina of the secretory glands. Larvae brown with black head. (Fig. •........... Ph. heptapotamicus Dobz. 8 (7) Front tibiotarsi rounded and widened at base, only 3 times as long as wide. On abdominal segments 6 large setae are situated between the foramina of the secretory glands.

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