Biocontrol agents of phytonematodes by Tarique Hassan Askary, P. R. P. Martinelli

By Tarique Hassan Askary, P. R. P. Martinelli

Highlighting using biocontrol brokers as a substitute to chemical insecticides within the administration of plant parasitic nematodes, this ebook experiences the present development and advancements within the box. Tactful and winning exploitation of every biocontrol agent, i.e. nematophagous fungi, parasitic micro organism, predaceous mites, rhizobacteria, mycorrhiza and predaceous nematodes, has been defined individually. The members are 23 eminent nematologists and their details has been compiled in 19 chapters.

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From Greece, identified as M. javanica (four populations) and M. incognita (one population) using either isozyme phenotypes or the sequence characterized amplified region-­ polymerase chain reaction (SCAR-PCR) technique, were virulent against the Mi resistance gene as assayed by pot experiments in controlled conditions. , 2005). , 2005), but such HR observations were not so distinct in the histopathological changes induced by Egyptian M. , 2012). Moreover, despite the above-mentioned progress in molecular nematology, no transgenic approaches to resistance have reached commercialization and therefore PPN control lags ­behind transgenic control of insects, viruses and fungi.

So, in the next few years, without an efficient alternative to MB, absence of such an effective fumigant will become a major crisis, particularly in crops such as tomato, pepper, strawberry, cucurbits, other vegetables and field-grown ornamentals, which have relied on fumigation in the past. The loss estimates for some of these crops were relatively low (Sasser and Freckman, 1987), because in 1987 MB was available and widely used. In the coming years we will be seeing losses without MB-effective control.

Pallida and G. rostochiensis – ca. US$20/sample; presence of G. pallida and G. rostochiensis, M. chitwoodi, M. fallax and D. ­destructor – ca. US$50/sample; but the prices decrease up to 50% when samples increase. Since vegetables are the most susceptible host for RKNs and their infestations on tomato are common in Africa and worldwide (Netscher and Sikora, 1990; Agbenin, 2011), we can give an example as a rough estimation for loss value of Egyptian tomato. 175 tons/Faddan, respectively, in the year 2012 (Anonymous, 2012b).

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