By Ulrike Gut
This learn is anxious with the purchase of intonation by way of German/English bilingual kids. Nucleus placement, pitch flow and intonational phraseology have been analysed on either the phonetic and the phonological point. The research was once conducted utilizing either the tonetic (British) and the ToBI transcription platforms. The series of acquisition and features of language illustration in the course of language acquisition are defined.
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This examine is worried with the purchase of intonation through German/English bilingual young ones. Nucleus placement, pitch circulate and intonational phraseology have been analysed on either the phonetic and the phonological point. The research was once performed utilizing either the tonetic (British) and the ToBI transcription platforms.
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Extra resources for Bilingual Acquisition of Intonation: A Study of Children Speaking German and English
Jones (described in Lehiste 1970) showed that the identification of word stress in a foreign language poses problems for subjects. Scuffil (1982) demonstrated the same for emphasis. " where / signifies a rising head and \ a falling nucleus. Asked to mark the 29 most prominent word in the sentence, a significant number of German native speakers chose the last word, whereas the majority of English speakers agreed on the second word. In addition, in a sentence with the structure 1 2 '3 /4, many Germans heard a prominence on the third word, which led Scuffil to conclude that, for German speakers, low pitch inhibits perceptual prominence.
Furthermore, language learners must unravel the complicated interplay between grammatical form, intonational form and pragmatic function of the various speech acts. As the third task, German/English bilingual children must differentiate between the phonological use of pitch for the expression of attitudes in both languages. The English rules must not be applied in German, where other linguistic forms take over this function. In general, however, it is unlikely that very young children use pitch for the expression of a similar range of attitudes as assumed in the adult system.
However, Ladd (1996) adduces some examples in which constituents or words are focussed without receiving stress. Conversely, to my knowledge, it has never been argued that a lexical item which carries the nucleus can at the same time not be in focus. Closely related to the concept of focus is the concept of emphasis. A lexical item is perceived to be emphasised when it receives exceptionable stress. g. Bannert 1985), for example to mark a particular item in enumeration. This is illustrated in (23) and (24).