By Stanislav S. N. Gorb
All through their evolution, residing creatures have constructed platforms to connect themselves to various substrate textures. As is the case in lots of technical platforms, animals use friction and adhesion to generate an attachment strength for overcoming drag. In fresh many years, our wisdom of such structures has tremendously elevated. This quantity summarizes greater than 10 years of extremely structural and experimental stories on insect attachment platforms and provides an up to date review of this topic. Many examples are awarded and the final ideas of the interrelationship among the development of attachment structures and the functionality are defined exhibiting the ideas of morphology and extremely constitution of such structures. the rules of layout enthusiastic about the attachment platforms defined might encourage new rules on the subject of the biomimetics of latest surface-active fabrics. viewers: This quantity offers an outstanding advent to organic attachment and should be of curiosity to biologist, zoologist, fabrics scientists and engineers.
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Extra info for Attachment Devices of Insect Cuticle
Where the matrix is not crosslinked, the material can flow plastically (Hepburn, 1985). 4 Arhrodial membranes The external skeleton of Insecta contains hard sclerites connected to each other by highly-flexible regions, called arthrodial membranes (Hepburn, 1985). The term «intersegmental membranes» covers only a small number of examples (Snodgrass, 1935). The membranes exist in the movable joints of legs, antennae, organs of copulation, ovipositor, mouth-parts, and between segments of the body.
3 B, C). Spider claws are controlled by two antagonistic muscles, the M. levator praetarsi and the M. depressor pretarsi, whereas only one muscle is present in insects. 40 Posterior abdominal tergites of the pupae of Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera, Psychidae), bear rows of anteriorly oriented spines (Neal, 1982). These fine, hook-like outgrowths are sloped at an angle of 60° to the supporting surface. Male pupae bear additional spines on abdominal segments II-VI. These structures prevent pupa from sliding out of the cocoon.
A presumed function of such a mechanism is to prevent wing contamination by aphid honey-dew (Hennesey, 1981). A variety of hook-like, wing-interlocking mechanisms has been described in representatives of Lepidoptera. There are at least four different types of these systems. The two main ones are frenate and jugate (Shvanvich, 1949; Bey-Bienko, 1966), with two modifications called jugofrenate and amplexifom (Obenberger, 1964; Westheide and Rieger, 1996) (Fig. 8 A).