Atom, Molecule, and Cluster Beams I: Basic Theory, by Hans Pauly

By Hans Pauly

This ebook offers a constant, updated description of the super manifold and sundry experimental innovations which these days let paintings with impartial debris. It lays the actual foundations of a number of the experimental concepts, which make the most of equipment from such a lot fields in physics. consequently this publication is meant not just as a reference average for researchers, but additionally as a textbook to allow scholars to realize a great history and advent to the sector and its concepts.

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Additional info for Atom, Molecule, and Cluster Beams I: Basic Theory, Production and Detection of Thermal Energy Beams

Sample text

It is of equal importance to make the signal-to-noise ratio large in crucial locations. This is why the most important point in the design revolves around the various differential pumping stages, which allow relatively high pressures of 10-3 torr in some parts of the apparatus (source chambers) while in other parts (detection chamber) ultrahigh vacuum of about 10-11 torr must be maintained. This problem also occurs in surface studies because one has to work in ultrahigh vacuum in a large part of the apparatus.

The partial pressure of any constituent on the surface of a containing vessel is defmed as the mean rate at which momentum is transferred to unit area of the surface; the total pressure ofthe gas is the sum ofthe partial pressures ofthe constituents (Dalton's law). 24) results in P=nkT. 26) realizing that k = RlNo (R is the universal gas constant per mole, No is Avogadro's number, l; = NlNo is the number ofmoles in V). 26), then it follows that m M G=-PV=-PV. 27) This means that the mass of agas contained in volume V and under pressure P is proportional to the product PV.

In the course of this development it became very apparent that the "forces of light" not only allowed slowing down of a directed beam or trapping of atoms, but also provided complete control to manipulate the atoms [Pritchard (1991)]. As is discussed in more detail in Chap. 5, atomic beruns can be collimated, focused [Bjorkholm et a1. (1978), Sleator et a1. (1992)], deflected, diffracted by a grating, reflected by mirrors [Balykin and Letokhov (1989), Roach et a1. (1995), Hughes et a1. (1997)], guided in hollow optical fIbers [Dowling and Gea-Banacloche (l996)], built into "opticallattices" which are produced by a superposition of several standing light waves [Hemmerich and Hänsch (1993), Grynberg et a1.

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