Art of the Helicopter by John Watkinson

By John Watkinson

  • "The thought and dynamics of helicopter flight are advanced and for the uninitiated, tricky. yet during this e-book, British helicopter pilot and technical writer John Watkinson units out to simplify the strategies, and clarify in lay-man's phrases how a helicopter operates. utilizing pictures and over four hundred diagrams, all features of rotary flight are coated together with the historical past of rotor-craft, helicopter dynamics, rotors, tails, strength crops and keep an eye on. this is often a great e-book for any helicopter enthusiast." Airforce, Fall 2004 "...clear and easy diagrams that relief verbal motives of ways helicopters are made." -AOPA, 2004 "The paintings of the Helicopter is designed to de-mystify the complexity because it examines helicopter aerodynamic idea, layout and function. The ebook goals to debate its matters readably, start every one topic from first rules and construct on these in a "clearly defined logical series utilizing undeniable English and transparent diagrams, keeping off pointless mathematics"... - Flight safeguard Digest, might 2004


, Pages xi-xii

, Page xiii
1 - creation to rotorcraft

, Pages 1-21
2 - Technical background

, Pages 22-60
3 - advent to helicopter dynamics

, Pages 61-116
4 - Rotors in practice

, Pages 117-165
5 - The tail

, Pages 166-190
6 - Engines and transmissions

, Pages 191-257
7 - Control

, Pages 258-322
8 - Helicopter performance

, Pages 323-346
9 - different different types of rotorcraft

, Pages 347-378

, Pages 379-390

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If a short-term average is used, the same result will be obtained whether the frequency is zero or very low, because a low frequency doesn't change very much during the averaging process. Thus the short-term Fourier transform (STFT) allows quicker analysis at the expense of frequency accuracy. For best frequency accuracy, the signal has to be analysed for a long time and so the exact time at which a particular event occurs would be lost. On the other hand if the time when an event occurs has to be known, the analysis must be over a short time only and so the frequency analysis will be poor.

Above resonance the. inertia of the mass is greater than the stiffness of the spring and the response of the system is described as mass controlled. With a constant force there is constant acceleration yet as frequency rises there is less time for the acceleration to act. Thus velocity is inversely proportional to frequency. As the displacement is the integral of the velocity the displacement curve is tilted by an amount proportional to frequency so that below resonance the displacement is constant and in-phase with the Flat i I m I Amplitude and phase t.

When the volume of a fixed mass of gas is reduced, the pressure rises. The gas acts like a spring; it is compliant. However, a gas also has mass. Sound travels through air by an interaction between the mass and the compliance. Imagine pushing a mass via a spring. It would not move immediately because the spring would have to be compressed in order to transmit a force. If a second mass were to be connected to the first by another spring, it would start to move even later. Thus the speed of a disturbance in a mass/spring system depends on the mass and the stiffness.

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