# Applied Geophysics U.S.S.R. by Nicholas Rast

By Nicholas Rast

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Given these Umitations we see by comparing the curves in Figs. 10 and 11 as well as the intensity values for waves reflected above the shot point, that « as F I G . 11. Curves for the dam ping of doubly reflected waves in two-layered media. double echoes are always less intense than single ones. P + QIVI^P (17) AQ. p > ^ I , P be sUghtly greater than for media where VQ^ < p, provided A is the same. This ratio increases as A increases and as γ decreases but A does not alter. Multi-layered Media Of the many problems connected with the intensity of reflected waves excited in multi-layered media, we shall here consider only the following: (a) the influence of the values of transverse velocity on the intensity of reflected waves; REFRACTED AND REFLECTED LONGITUDINAL WAVES 41 (b) the influence of the overall depth of the reflecting boundary and the ratio between the thicknesses of the different layers on the intensity of re flected waves over a shot point; (c) comparison of the intensities of single and double echoes above a shot point.

This use of stereographic projections is of major interest for geometric seismics since it can be used to solve problems connected with the propagation of seismic waves, which by their very nature are spatial. Here we shall not dwell on the theory of stereographic projection, which has been expounded in a number of works but shall merely describe their main properties which enable them to be used for studying on a drawing the mutual incli nations of rays in space by first projecting them on to a sphere.

A) Construction of the projection of the trace of intersection of the ray surface intersection with the interface. Since the interface is not simple in form we shall find the projection of the trace of intersection of the ray * For the sake of brevity we shall henceforward call such a surface the **φ° ray surface". 56 Ε . I. GAL'PERÍN et al. surface with the interface as the geometric locus of the projection of traces of intersection with the interface of the individual rays. Let us take a particular example in order to examine the technique for deter mining the projection of the points of intersection of the ray with the interface.