By Masahiko Oya (auth.)
There are many typical dangers reminiscent of floods, landslides, volcanoes and earthquakes within the Asia-Pacific quarter. however, there are few reviews of such traditional dangers during this zone and data approximately their mitigation is of the maximum significance.
This booklet records using geomorphological maps exhibiting the kingdom of flooding; those maps enable predictions to be made. the writer has compiled geomorphological maps and documentation in their validation, and the maps permit not just estimation of flooding, but in addition prediction of soil liquefaction because of earthquakes.
Audience: the result of the discussions during this e-book follow not just to geographers, experts, engineers and coverage makers in Japan and Southeast Asian international locations, but in addition to these from Europe, North the USA, and Africa.
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Additional info for Applied Geomorphology for Mitigation of Natural Hazards
2). Located within the northeastern part of the Monsoon Area, the Japanese archipelago experiences intense rainfalls and abundant precipitation. As a result, annual rainfall in Tokyo is 1,460 millimeters, Sapporo 1,460, Osaka 1,400 and Kagoshima 2,375 millimeters. In comparison, annual precipitation (averaged from 1959 to 1980) in Berlin is 590 millimeters, Paris 614, Moscow 657, London 759 and Vienna 914 millimeters. While Europe has retained fossil topographies from the Tertiary and Pleistocene ages, in Japan rain and rivers have destroyed suchfeatures.
Further, Europe was glaciated at least four times during the Pleistocene Age by glaciers such as Giinz, Mindel, Riss and Wiirm, and glaciers still remain locally in the Alps and Scandinavia. Japan lacks glaciers at present, and glaciated topography from the Pleistocene Age is limited. Because of Japan's complex landforms and geology, rivers are short and their drainage basins extremely limited in area in comparison with those of continental areas. There is no river longer than 400 kilometers. The country's largest river basin is that of the Tone River near Tokyo, which has a length of322 kilometers and a basin area of about 15,760 square kilometers.
Seawater reached Tsushima, in the uppermost part of the delta, on Sept. 28, 1959. The profile shows how the land rises at that point. This was the coastline during the 14th to 16th centuries, and became the limits of the spring tide following the Ise Bay Typhoon. The Nobi Plain has been devastated by tidal waves 10 times since 1868. Waves on Sept. 11, 1889, and Sept. 11, 1896, were particularly high. While the flood levels resulting from the two high waves were different, their limits were the same-namely, Tsushima.