By Christophe Clement, Ettore Pacini, Jean-Claude Audran
Pollen, the plant constitution most generally utilized by people, is a key constitution in plant replica giving upward thrust to end result and seeds. in addition, the biotechnological use of pollen is of significant significance for plant breeders because it permits to procure kinds with greater usage and yield. within the first half, the successive steps of pollen improvement within the anther from floral induction to pollen germination and fertilization are completely tested; the second one half is dedicated to pollen behaviour in vitro.
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Additional resources for Anther and Pollen: From Biology to Biotechnology
In male ovaries on the other hand this ratio was always less than 1 due to the disappearance of putrescine in TCA-insoluble fraction (Figs. 4-5). At anthesis higher polyamine biosynthetic activities (ODC, ADC and SAMDC) were detected in male ovaries in comparison with the female ones, especially with regard to SAMDC (Fig. 6). 40 Biasi et al. 4 Discussion We have investigated the physiology of male and female flower development in kiwiplants as a first step to study sex determination in dioecious plants and the possibility to use polyamines as markers of sexual differentiation.
4. 3 Enzyme extraction and assay All enzyme procedures were carried out in an ice bath, unless otherwise indicated. lM. 20 18 16 14 -; E m (5 E c: IJ Put in female ownes OSpd in female ovaries • Put in male owries II Spd in male ovaries 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 34 41 48 56 (full bloom) da ys afte r bud burst Fig. 5. TeA-insoluble polyamine content during. lm peak to peak) and then centrifugated at 20,000 g for 30 min at O°c. ). The assay was carried out as previously described (Bagni et al. 1983), with minor modification (Beckman Tissue Solubilizer 450, Beckman, instead of Protosol, NEN).
This allowed us to identify 5 partial cDNAs located on the Y chromosome. The location of these genes was confirmed by segregation analysis using Southern blot analysis: each of the cDNA hybridised to a genomic DNA fragment which strictly segregates with the male plants. Interestingly, all 5 clones seem to have a homologue on the X chromosome. The sequence analysis of these clones revealed that they are all similar to EST sequences (Expressed ~equence lags) of Arabidopsis or rice. One of them has 2 calcium binding domains similar to those found in calmodulin.