Amphibians of Belarus by S. m. Drobenkov

By S. m. Drobenkov

This e-book summarizes the result of a long term research of amphibian distribution, ecology and morphology within the Republic of Belarus. For all amphibian species comparable to Triturus vulgaris, T. cristatus, Bombina bombina, Pelobates fuscus, Bufo bufo, B. viridis, B. calamita, Hyla arborea, Rana temporaria, R. arvalis, R. ridibunda, R. lessonae and Rana esculenta, geographical and habitat distribution, assemblage constitution, feeding, task, copy and improvement are defined. designated research of morphological version and the differentiation of populations by way of panorama areas are given. nearby difficulties of anthropogenic strain and method of species conservation are mentioned. The booklet can also serve a consultant to the amphibians of Belarus and will good be utilized by either experts and amateurs.

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This booklet summarizes the result of a long term research of amphibian distribution, ecology and morphology within the Republic of Belarus. For all amphibian species corresponding to Triturus vulgaris, T. cristatus, Bombina bombina, Pelobates fuscus, Bufo bufo, B. viridis, B. calamita, Hyla arborea, Rana temporaria, R.

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The belly is milk-white with considerable pigmentation. The pattern and coloration of the sides vary THE AMPHIBIANS OF BELARUS 43 Fig. 23. Distribution of Rana arvalis in Belarus. geographically and among populations. The dark spots vary in size and shape, and the number and shape allows one to distinguish discrete phenotypes. The breeding season in central Belarus usually falls in the middle of April after the air temperature rises to 10–12oC, in various types of wetlands (Fig. 24). Spawning occurs 3–6 days later then in the Common Frog and almost simultaneously with the Common Toad.

The majority of individuals (to 90%) have a mid-dorsal pale stripe of different widths and shapes. The belly is grayish-white or grayish-yellow with a marbled pattern formed by dark spots. The hind leg has transverse stripes. The Marsh Frog reproduces from the beginning of May through at water temperatures of 15–20°C. The vocal activity of males lasts after the breeding season. In the breeding season, the male choruses are heard during the day and night and stop before morning from 0300– 0600 h (the coldest time).

The Natterjack Toad inhabits Western Europe northwards to southern Sweden and Britain and south to northern Italy, Austria and the Czech Republic (Kuzmin, 1999). In Belarus, the eastern range margin extends approximately along a line connecting the cities of Glubokoe – Lepel – Bobruisk – Mozyr (Pikulik, 1985). It is a rare species that is distributed very irregularly (Fig. 16) and is included in the Red Data Book. The Natterjack Toad is close to the Green Toads (complex B. viridis), whose taxonomy requires further study (Kuzmin, 1999).

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