By S.S. Narwal, R.E. Hoagland, R.H. Dilday, M. J. Reigosa Roger
The swiftly starting to be human inhabitants has elevated the dependence on fossil gasoline dependent agrochemicals comparable to fertilizers and insecticides to provide the mandatory agricultural and forestry items. This has exerted an excellent strain at the non renewable fossil gas assets, which can't final indefinitely. in addition to, indiscriminate use ofpesticides for pests (weeds, bugs, nematodes, pathogens) regulate has led to severe ecological and environmental difficulties viz. , (A) expanding occurrence of resistance in pest organisms to special insecticides. (B) Shift in pests inhabitants, particulary in weeds and bugs. In weeds, species which are extra heavily relating to the plants they infest have constructed. In bugs, situation is such a lot grim, the predators were killed and minor insect pests became significant pests and require very heavy doses ofhighly poisonous pesticides for his or her keep watch over. (C) larger environmental toxins and healthiness dangers (a) really from infection of floor and underground ingesting water assets and (b) from their inhalation in the course of dealing with and alertness. (D) poisonous residues of insecticides pollute the surroundings and will end up detrimental to even our destiny generations. (E) a few agricultural commodities may well comprise minute amounts ofpesticides residues, with lengthy tenn adversarial results on human and farm animals health and wellbeing. for that reason, severe ecological questions about the reliance on insecticides for pests keep an eye on has been raised. using fertilizers, in addition to inflicting environmental difficulties has additionally impoverished the soil wellbeing and fitness and lowered the invaluable soil fauna. for instance, in a few significant crop rotations viz.
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Extra info for Allelopathy in Ecological Agriculture and Forestry: Proceedings of the III International Congress on Allelopathy in Ecological Agriculture and Forestry, Dharwad, India, 18–21 August 1998
Toxicity of tall fescue to rape and birdsfoot trefoil seeds and seedlings. Crop Science 8: 650-653. 105. , Theppoolpon, M. and Masarugson W. (1985). Long term effect of mulching with fertilizer under corn-legumes intercropping on crop yield and improvement of soil chemical and physical properties. In Thailand National Corn and Sorghum Program 1985 Annual Report. Department of Agriculture, Kasetsart University and CIMMYT pp. 204-212. 106. , Franko, A. L. (1987). Study of the use of Manipueira as a nematicide under field conditions.
Tab/e 4. Bioactivity ofneem against nematodes and fungi Nematode species Reference Fungal species Me/oidogyne spp. Praty/enchus penetrans P. thornei Ty/enchulus spp. Roty/enchus reniformis Helicoty/enchus spp. Heterodera cajani Tylenchorhyncus brassicae Hemicriconemoides mangiferae Xiphenema spp. Aphe/enchus spp. 22,70,26 70 26 Metarrhizium anisopliae Aspergillus spp. Fusarium spp. Macrophomina phaseolina Rhizoctonia so/ani Sclerotium rolfsii 4 43 4 26 86 86 88 88 Reference I 62 86 86 86 82 40 Facknath and Lalljee Interestingly, these allelopathic effects of neem products on pathogenic nematodes, fungi and viruses persist even during the subsequent crop season after application, thus protecting the subsequent crop as well.
Reviews of Nematology 12: 257-263. 30. Devakaumar, C. (1994). Nematode principles ofplant origin. See Reference No. 14, pp. 165-189. 31. , Singh, 1. K. (1994). Management of rice hispa (Dicaldispa armigera (OLIV) with botanical insecticides. 7, pp. 97. 32. Dharamraj, and Sheriff, M. (1994). ). 38. 33. K. S. (1994). Field evaluation of botanical insecticides for boll worms control in cotton. lOI. 34. H. (1992). Victims noone mowons. Agricultural Research 40: 10-11 35. I. R. (1992). Weed control with crop a1lelopathy.