By Arie Altman
This paintings integrates easy biotechnological methodologies with updated agricultural practices, supplying strategies to precise agricultural wishes and difficulties from plant and crop yield to animal husbandry. It offers and evaluates the constraints of classical methodologies and the opportunity of novel and emergent agriculturally comparable biotechnologies.
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Additional resources for Agricultural Biotechnology (Books in Soils, Plants, and the Environment)
Gen. Microbiol Symp. 48 (1992). , April 6:44–49 (1992). Graham, A haystack of needles: applying the polymerize chain reaction, Chem. Ind. pp. 718– 721 (1994). Edginton, Taxol out of woods, Biotechnology 9:933–935; 1012–1013 (1991). Copyright © 1998 by MARCEL DEKKER, INC. 2 Micropropagation: Clonal Plant Propagation In Vitro Arie Altman The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel Beth Loberant Kibbutz Rosh Hanikra, Israel I. INTRODUCTION Clonal, true-to-type propagation of plants by a variety of tissue and cell culture methods, better known as micropropagation, is now the most commercially efficient and practically oriented plant biotechnology.
Implementation of novel biotechnologies that involve gene manipulation, somatic hybridization, and mutagenesis has led to the identification of the roles of specific mitochondrial, chloroplast, and nuclear DNA elements in cell growth, fertility, and control of blossom [19,27]. Understanding their roles can lead to the design of tools for regulation of commercially important traits, such as male sterility [7,19]. Moreover, the production of improved zygotic seeds can now be complemented by plant in vitro techniques to induce a high rate of somatic embryogenesis [19,28].
Novel in vitro biotechnologies, including superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo implantation in surrogate mothers, allow breeders to produce multiple embryos with the most desired qualities . This, together with successful gender selection and embryo manipulation, is a major asset for livestock agriculture. The results are increased meat and milk production that is currently six to seven times larger than 30 years ago. Germplasm banks and germ-plasm cryopreservation of plant seeds, vegetative tissues, sperm, oocytes, and embryos, are another important biotechnological development .