Advances in Understanding Human Performance: by Tadeusz Marek, Waldemar Karwowski, Valerie Rice

By Tadeusz Marek, Waldemar Karwowski, Valerie Rice

Combining rising strategies, theories, and functions of human elements wisdom, this quantity makes a speciality of discovery and figuring out of human functionality concerns in complicated platforms, together with contemporary advances in neural foundation of human habit at paintings (i.e. neuroergonomics), education, and common layout. The ebook is equipped into ten sections that target the next themes:

I: Neuroergonomics: Workload review
II: types and size in Neuroergonomics
III: Neuroergonomics and Human functionality
IV: Neuroergonomics and coaching matters
V: Trainees: Designing for these in education
VI: army Human elements: Designing for these within the defense force
VII: New Programs/New locations: Designing for these strange with Human components
VIII: common layout: Designing to incorporate each person
IX: Designing for individuals with Disabilities
X: childrens and aged: Designing for these of other a while

Sections I via IV of this publication specialize in neuroscience of human functionality in complicated structures, with emphasis at the evaluate and modeling of cognitive workload, fatigue, and coaching effectiveness. Sections V via X be aware of using human elements to big populations, with the caveat that the layout info would possibly not generalize to (or be of curiosity to) different populations. This broadens the traditional definition which limits designated populations to those that have obstacles of their sensible skills, i.e. people with continual disabilities because of ailment, damage, or getting older. therefore, detailed populations can contain yes investigations and designs fascinated with army, scholars, or maybe constructing nations and people naïve to the sector of human components, in addition to people who are tormented by disabilities and getting older (both younger and old).

Many chapters of this publication specialize in research, layout, and overview of demanding situations affecting scholars, trainees, individuals of the army, folks with disabilities, and common layout. often, the chapters are equipped to maneuver from a extra common, to a extra really good software. for instance, the subtopics for people with disabilities comprise designing web content, workstations, housing, entrepreneur education, communique concepts, items, environments, public transportation structures, and communities.

This publication is of unique price to a wide number of execs, researchers and scholars within the huge box of human functionality who're attracted to neuroergonomics, education effectiveness, and common layout and operation of goods and tactics, in addition to administration of labor structures in modern society. we are hoping this booklet is informative, yet much more - that it's proposal frightening. we are hoping it evokes, best the reader to think about different questions, purposes, and power recommendations in developing designs that enhance functionality, potency, and ease-of-use for all.

Seven different titles within the Advances in Human elements and Ergonomics sequence are:

Advances in Human components and Ergonomics in Healthcare
Advances in utilized electronic Human Modeling
Advances in Cross-Cultural determination Making
Advances in Cognitive Ergonomics
Advances in Occupational, Social and Organizational Ergonomics
Advances in Human elements, Ergonomics and defense in production and repair Industries
Advances in Ergonomics Modeling & Usability overview



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Extra resources for Advances in Understanding Human Performance: Neuroergonomics, Human Factors Design, and Special Populations

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All participants were non-supervisory CPCs with a current medical certificate and had actively controlled traffic in an Air Route Traffic Control Center between 3 to 30 years. Prior to the study, all participants signed informed consent forms. 25 EXP E RI M E N TAL TAS KS Thc participants completed two typcs of tasks : n-back tasks and ATC part-taskso Thc n-back task is a standardized working memory and attention task with four incrcmental levels of difficult Yo Participants are asked to monitor stimuli (single letters) presented on a screen serially and click a button when a target stimulus arriveso Four conditions wcre used to incrementally vary working memory load from zero to three itemso In the O-back condition, participants responded to a single pre specified targct lettcr (eogo, "X") with their dominant hand (pressing a button to identify the stimulus) o In the I -back condition, the targct was defined as any lettcr identical to the one immediately preceding it (ioeo, one trial back) o In the 2 -back and 3-back conditions, the targets were defined as any letter that was identical to the one presented two or three trials back, respectivelyo The total test included seven sessions of each of thc four n-back conditions (hence, a total of 28 n-back blocks) prcsented in a pseudo-random ordcL The task was dcsigned and presented in E­ prime (Psychology Software Tools} For the ATC part-task, each CPC controllcd traffic on workstations with a high­ resolution (2,048 x 2,048), 29" radarscope, keyboard, trackball, and Direct Access Keypad for 1 0 minuteso To display the air traffic, the DESTREE ATC simulator and the TGF systems that were developed by software engineers at the WJHTC wcre usedo Six simulation pilots werc used within scenario s by supporting one sector or two sectors and entering data at their workstations to maneuver aircraft, all based on controller clearances 0 Two types of communications, either voice (VoiceComm) or data (DataComm) communications were used in separate sessions in a pscudo­ random ordeL For each communication type, task difficulty was varied by thc number of aircraft in each sector, containing 6, 1 2 or 1 8 aircrafto F N I R D EV I C E Thc continuous wave fNIR system (fNIR Devices LLC ; wwwo fnirdeviccsocom) used in this study is connected to a flexible sensor pad (Figure 1 ) that contains 4 light sources with built in peak wavelengths at 730 nm and 8 5 0 nm and 1 0 detectors designed to sample cortical areas underlying the forehead (Ayaz et aL , 2006) 0 With a fixed source-detector separation of 2 0 5 cm, this configuration generates a total of 1 6 measurement locations (voxels) per wavelengtho For data acquisition and visualization, COBT Studio software (Drexel University) was usedo The system records two wavelengths and dark current for each 1 6 voxels, totaling 48 26 measurements for each sampling period.

Situation awareness implications of adaptive automation for information processing in an air traffic control-related task. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 3 6, 447-462. l (2009) . Human-automation teams and adaptable control for future air traffic management. International Journal ofIndustrial Ergonomics 39, 894-903 . , and Caggiano, D . (2002). Mental workload. In V . S . ), Encyclopedia of the Human Brain, 1 7 -2 7 . San Diego, DE: Academic Press. , and Myung, R. (2005). Evaluation of mental workload with a combined measure based on physiological indices during a dual task of tracking and mental arithmetic.

Mean RTs in the decision task for each participant were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA, with TC and TOT as the repeated factor. As expected, the main effect was significant for both TC and TOT [F( l , 7) = 5 l . 0 1 , MSE = 463 1 , respectively] , confirming that our manipulation was accurate . 42, P < 0 . 0 1 , MSE = 896] . Simple-effects analysis showed significant differences for each comparison (all p < 0 . 0 5 ; Table 1 ) . Interaction is therefore due to differences in simple-effect magnitudes.

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