# A Mathematical Introduction to Dirac's Formalism by S. J. L. Van Eijndhoven

By S. J. L. Van Eijndhoven

This monograph includes a useful analytic advent to Dirac's formalism. the 1st half offers a few new mathematical notions within the surroundings of triples of Hilbert areas, stating the idea that of Dirac foundation. the second one half introduces a conceptually new thought of generalized capabilities, integrating the notions of the 1st half. The final a part of the booklet is dedicated to a mathematical interpretation of the most positive factors of Dirac's formalism. It comprises a pairing among distributional bras and kets, continuum expansions and continuum matrices.

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A . + X DR i s a bounded Carleman o p e r a t o r . denote an inducing f u n c t i o n of t h e o p e r a t o r b. The Borel f u n c t i o n x ++ of VR. Ilb(x) ( I 2 i s p-integrable on bounded B o r e l sets M. Remarks. - I f DR i s a Hilbert-Schmidt o p e r a t o r , then t h e corresponding f u n c t i o n x I+ . Ilk(x) ll 2 LS p-integrable. So i n t h i s case t h e Condition (b) i s re- AN EMBEDDING THEOREM 39 dundant ( c f . Corollary ( 1 . 2 . 4 ) ) . - In general t h e second condition i s not redundant a s t h e following example shows.

The aim of t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o c o n s t r u c t c a n o n i c a ~e v a l u a t i o n f u n c t i o n a l s ex, x E M ( c f . Section 1 1 . 2 ) . O u r method i s c o n s t r u c t i v e and t h e r e f o r e rather t e c h n i c a l . I n t h e appendix t o t h i s chapter w e p r e s e n t an e l e g a n t b u t non-constructive method. Let ( v ~ denote ) ~ an ~orthonormal ~ basis i n longs t o L 2 ( M , p ) . x. For each k E IN, DRv, be- Since bounded Borel s e t s of M have f i n i t e p-measure, each r e p r e s e n t a t i v e (DRvk)- of DRvk i s i n t e g r a b l e on bounded Borel s e t s .

A l s o , f o r each Cwl 1 1 keZ