A History of Palestine, 634-1099 by Moshe Gil

By Moshe Gil

This was once the 1st accomplished historical past of Palestine from the Muslim conquest in 634 to that of the Crusaders in 1099. it's a 1992 translation and revised model of quantity I of Palestine through the First Muslim interval which was once released in Hebrew in 1983 and offers an authoritative survey of the early mediaeval Islamic and Jewish worlds. in keeping with a powerful array of assets together with records from the Cairo Geniza assortment, the writer examines the lives of the Jewish, Christian and Muslim groups of Palestine opposed to a historical past of the political and armed forces occasions of the interval. particular cognizance is paid to the background of Palestinian Jews less than Muslim rule. an important source for college kids and experts of mediaeval Islamic and Jewish historical past, non secular reports and for someone attracted to the background of the Holy Land.

Professor Gil starts off through reviewing the political and armed forces occasions in Palestine sooner than and after the Arab invasion. Later chapters discover the Abbasid, Tiiliinid, Ikhshidid and Fatimid classes, in which time Palestine was once a nearly perpetual battlefield for states, armies and factions. in contrast backdrop of clash and administrative adjustments, the writer portrays the typical lifetime of Palestine and its population. He seems to be on the fiscal historical past of Palestine- its agriculture, shipping amenities, exports and platforms of taxation- in addition to the non secular prestige ofJerusalem, the character of Islam's tolerance in the direction of Jews and Christians and the prestige, management and customs of the Christian population. particular cognizance is paid to the historical past of Palestinian Jews below Muslim rule. Professor Gil info their topography, financial actions and spiritual existence; he explores the Karaite and Samaritan groups and discusses the position of the main fashionable Jewish establishment, the yeshiva.

"A historical past of Palestine, 634-1099" is predicated on a powerful array of assets. Professor Gil has rigorously learn the greater than 1,000 files of the Cairo Geniza assortment and those are paralleled via Arabic, Syriac, Latin and Greek fabric. This huge research can be learn by way of scholars and experts of mediaeval Islamic and Jewish background and spiritual stories and by way of someone attracted to the heritage of the Holy Land.

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7 [7] Antiochus Eustratios (his name dwindled to Strategios), a monk captured by the Persians in Jerusalem, describes the conquest of the city in greater detail. The patriarch Zacharias apparently intended to hand over Jerusalem peacefully but as its inhabitants opposed a settlement, it was conquered after a siege of twenty days. Antioch us places the blame for the murder of many of the city's Christians on the Jews; according to him Christians were murdered due to their refusal to accept Judaism.

According to Arab sources, the Prophet's ancestors had close contact with certain areas ofPalestine, particularly Gaza. It is told that Hashim, the grandfather of the Prophet's father, 'Abdallah, died in Gaza (in the latter half of the sixth century) while staying there to conduct his business affairs. Of the Prophet's father as well, it is said that he used to trade in Gaza, travelling with the caravans of the Qurashites. 7 6 7 Yaqut, Buldiitl, Ill, 893. ammad b. _thatthe Bishop ofGaza came to the Prophet when he was in Tabuk (see on the Tabuk expedition below) and told him 'In my town [Gaza] Hashim and 'Abd Shams [Hashim's brother] died when they came on business, and here are their moneys' (or property).

It seems that an important aspect of his preparations was the pacts he concluded with tribes and peoples who were the Persians' enemies, particularly those of the Caucasus and the Khazars. Meanwhile the Persians were busy strengthening their alliance with the A vars. This war lasted some six years, from 622 until 628. One of its significant results was the defeat of the A vars in 626, when they were attempting to attack Constantinople in the wake of their collaboration with the Persians. One year later, towards the end of 627, the Persians suffered their greatest defeat near the ruins of ancient 9 See the translation of the Syriac chronicle: Noldeke, Sitzungsb.

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