By P Emmer, O Petre-Grenouilleau, Jessica Roitman
The results of the growth of Europe have interested historians and economists, in addition to the general public at huge, for hundreds of years. probably the most interesting and debatable results of Europe's growth has been the alternate that resulted from this stream out of Europe and into different areas of the area. The function of overseas alternate in Europe's fiscal development and particularly in its industrialization has lengthy been hotly contested. This quantity has as its element of departure the concept the hyperlink among colonial alternate and the advance of Europe was once even more advanced than hitherto believed. simply because this hyperlink is so advanced, this quantity comprises essays via a number of experts to evaluate the hot instructions within the historiography. additionally, this quantity examines the controversy at the influence of colonial exchange on international locations equivalent to Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden, that are frequently missed in want of dialogue approximately Britain.
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Growing proportions of British merchant ships were indeed built in the North American colonies (and in Asia) even before the French blockades cut oﬀ supplies of Baltic timer and other naval stores (pitch, tar, and hemp) during the Napoleonic Wars. Nevertheless, the established patterns of East-West and intra-European trade in timber reverted to normal after that war, and iron rather than American forests seriously alleviated European shortages of wood for construction and shipbuilding in the 19th century.
Indeed, the problems of mechanising all major processes in the production of cloth made from the entire range of natural ﬁbers were solved. By then, supplies of cheap ﬂax from Russia and wool from Australia, Argentina, and other primary producers became readily available to supply Europe’s textile industries with all the ﬁbers they could process mechanically. Divergence and Convergence The problem of “the Great Divergence” between Western Europe and East Asia is stimulating to address. We can agree that the early shift from organic to inorganic forms of energy provided Europe (particularly Britain) with an early start.
28 Before leaving the reader to make up his or her own mind, we would like to thank the University of South Brittany at Lorient, and the Institut Universitaire de France for their unstinting support in enabling Olivier Pétré-Grenouilleau to organise the international conference at which the contributions to this volume were ﬁrst presented, and for having these contributions translated. Anne Simpson of the Netherlands Institute of Advanced Study at Wassenaar, where Pieter Emmer spent the academic year 2002–3, has also provided editorial support.