A Biosystematic Study of the African and Madagascan by Christian Puff

By Christian Puff

Biosystematic stories at the Rubiaceae have an extended culture on the Institute of Botany in Vienna. inside this family members the Anthospermeae, and particularly its African and Madagascan individuals, are of specific curiosity as a result of a number of facets of their evolution: I) Perfection of anemophily inside of an another way approximately completely zoophilous family members; 2) transitions from hermaphrodity to polygamy and at last dioecy; three) differentiation from huge and long-lived shrubs to short-lived herbs; four) adaptive radiation from humid to seasonally dry, fire-exposed and xeric habitats. notwithstanding, morphological variety associated with sexual differentia­ tion, modificatory plasticity, and eco-geographical polymorphism have for a very long time hampered our knowing of the relationships between those African Anthospermeae. therefore, it used to be central to place detailed emphasis on box observations and to hold out various experiments with cultivated crops as well as the research of an immense herbarium fabric. the writer, consequently, performed huge box paintings, usually below very antagonistic stipulations, and coated such a lot African nations from Ethiopia to Southern Africa and two times visited Madagascar. during this approach a large number of information was once collected at the crew in appreciate to germination and progress shape, vegetative and reproductive morphology, anatomy and biology, embryology, karyology, crossing relationships, phytochemistry, distribu­ tion and ecology, etc.

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In a survey covering all Galopina and most Anthospermum, Nenax and Carpacoce species, nodes were always found to be unilacunar (one gap with one leaf trace; Figs. 14 a-d), as is the case for the majority of the Rubiaceae (cf. NEUBAUER 1981). In most taxa, much contracted short shoots are borne in the axils of long shoot leaves. Due to the close proximity of the short shoot base and the sub tending long shoot leaf, the vascular tissue portions which eventually form the vascular cylinder of the short shoot, may start to separate from the main vascular cylinder before the leaf trace branches out, or at least before the leaf trace gap closes again.

7 b, branching near the base, and Fig. 11 a). If such branches recur at other nodes in the lower part of the actual main stem, the shrub becomes several-stemmed. Obviously, in older individuals it is often impossible to determine which of the stems are the actual main axes and which are lateral branches. Growth form differences of these large, shrubby species primarily concern the regularity and symmetry of branching, the number of lateral branches produced, the angles between main axes and lateral branches, the curvature of the branches, and the degree of branching of the lateral axes themselves.

5 mm for I-g, i-j In all genera, the stipular sheaths are vascularized by ring-like bundles which often run just below the upper edge of the sheaths. These bundles invariable branch off laterally from the base of the prominent leaf trace bundle (Figs. 14 h-j); they may fork, and the ascending branches enter, as small lateral bundles accompanying the larger median one, the petiole and/or the leaf blade base (Figs. 14 i-j). Large stipular "teeth" or fimbriae are normally vascularized by bundles branching out from the ring-like 4.

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