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For normal signal incident ( S = 0), Eqs. (33) and (34) simplify to respectively. The transverse area of a stack is 14 HOLOGRAPHIC STORAGE Fig. 12. The cross-section of a stack and the optimum placement of the signal beam in the stack. A useful way to discuss the hologram area is the area per bit for one hologram Abit , which is simply As an example, Abit is plotted in Fig. 5. Notice that (1) the storage density drops as the number of pixels in the SLM decreases, and (2) an optimum F opt exists that minimizes the area, and it is dependent on N SLM , d, and the recording angles.
DCT Transform. In lossy mode, JPEG decomposes each image component into 8 × 8 blocks for transform, quantization, and entropy coding. Blocks are processed in a raster scan order. Basically, the DCT is a method of decomposing a block of data into a weighted sum of certain fixed patterns. Each such pattern is called a basis, and each basis is associated with coefficient representing the contribution of that pattern in the block to be coded. There are altogether 64 basis functions to completely represent any block without error, and therefore the total number of values to be coded after the transform remains unchanged.
Since it was established in 1988, it has experienced two phases, MPEG-1 and MPEG-2, and is now in its third phase, MPEG-4. Data rates and applications are distinguishing factors among them. 5 Mbit/s. MPEG-2 is intended for higher data rates (10 Mbit/s or more), and MPEG-4 is intended for very low bit rates (about 64 kbit/s or less). MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 have potential uses in telecommunications, and for this reason, a third major international standards organization, the International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunications Sector (ITU-T) is participating in their development.